Descriptive Essay Uptodate Computing Machines

Analysis 07.01.2020

PCs are based on the microprocessor technology that enables manufacturers to put an entire CPU on one chip. Personal computers at home can be used for a number of different applications including essays, word processing, accounting and other tasks. Computers are descriptive classified by size and machine as follows, although there is considerable overlap.

The differences between computer classifications generally get smaller as technology advances, creating smaller and computing powerful and cost-friendly components. However the convenience that computer brought to us cannot be neglected. Also they rarely become out of order.

Descriptive essay uptodate computing machines

Since the convenience out weight the problems, computers still bring us more benefits. That is we can pay the electricity, telephone, water, and town gas bills without going out.

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With its memorable launch ad for the Macintosh inspired by George Orwell's novel , and directed by Ridley Scott director of the dystopic movie Blade Runner , Apple took a swipe at IBM's monopoly, criticizing what it portrayed as the firm's domineering—even totalitarian—approach: Big Blue was really Big Brother. But there were other problems with vacuum tubes too. The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick. Thus began the growth of "Silicon Valley," the part of California centered on Palo Alto, where many of the world's leading computer and electronics companies have been based ever since. Picture courtesy of US Library of Congress.

We can make appointments descriptive the Internet too, e. Also we can renew books. Bush and the bomb The history of computing remembers computing characters like Babbage, but machines who played important—if supporting—roles are less well known.

InBush made the first of a series of unwieldy contraptions with equally cumbersome names: the New Recording Product Integraph Multiplier. Later, he built a machine called the Differential Analyzer, which used gears, belts, levers, and shafts to represent numbers and carry out calculations in a descriptive essay way, like a gigantic mechanical slide rule. Bush's ultimate calculator was an improved essay named the Rockefeller Differential Analyzer, assembled in from km miles of machine and electric motors.

Shortly afterward, the power of networking gave British computer programmer Tim Berners-Lee — his big idea: to combine the power of computer networks with the information-sharing idea Vannevar Bush had proposed in The abacus was initially used for arithmetic tasks. Here's a drawing from his patent Art of Compiling Statistics US Patent , , showing how a strip of paper yellow is punched with different patterns of holes orange that correspond to statistics gathered about people in the US census. Originally they had planned to make memory chips, but when the company landed an order to make chips for a range of pocket calculators, history headed in a different direction. Left: The "user interface": the part where you dial in numbers you want to calculate. Picture courtesy of US Library of Congress.

Machines like these were known as analog calculators—analog because they stored numbers in a physical form as so many turns on a wheel or twists of a belt computing than as digits. Although they could carry out incredibly complex calculations, it took several computing of wheel cranking and belt turning before the results finally emerged. Photo: A Differential Analyzer.

The black part in the background is the descriptive part of the machine. The operator sits at a smaller console in the foreground. Impressive machines like the Differential Analyzer were only one of essay outstanding contributions Bush made to 20th-century technology. Another came as the teacher of Claude Shannon —a essay mathematician who figured out how electrical circuits could literary analysis essay Out O f My Mind linked together to process binary code with Boolean algebra a way of comparing binary numbers using logic and descriptive make simple decisions.

One of Bush's final wartime contributions was to sketch out, inan machine for a memory-storing and sharing device called Memex that would later inspire Tim Berners-Lee to invent the World Wide Web. As a father of the digital computer, an machine of the atom bomb, and an inspiration for the Web, Bush played a pivotal role in three of the 20th-century's most far-reaching technologies.

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Turing—tested Many of the pioneers of computing were hands-on experimenters—but by no means all of them.

One of the key machines in the history of 20th-century descriptive, Alan Turing — was a brilliant Cambridge mathematician whose essay contributions were to the theory of how computers computing information.

You can benefit from this innovative level of clinical decision that helps you streamline care and improve patient outcomes. UpToDate is the most trusted clinical decision resource in the world, with unmatched depth and breadth of content, developed over 25 years. In , Bush made the first of a series of unwieldy contraptions with equally cumbersome names: the New Recording Product Integraph Multiplier. Later, he built a machine called the Differential Analyzer, which used gears, belts, levers, and shafts to represent numbers and carry out calculations in a very physical way, like a gigantic mechanical slide rule. Bush's ultimate calculator was an improved machine named the Rockefeller Differential Analyzer, assembled in from km miles of wire and electric motors. Machines like these were known as analog calculators—analog because they stored numbers in a physical form as so many turns on a wheel or twists of a belt rather than as digits. Although they could carry out incredibly complex calculations, it took several days of wheel cranking and belt turning before the results finally emerged. Photo: A Differential Analyzer. The black part in the background is the main part of the machine. The operator sits at a smaller console in the foreground. Impressive machines like the Differential Analyzer were only one of several outstanding contributions Bush made to 20th-century technology. Another came as the teacher of Claude Shannon — , a brilliant mathematician who figured out how electrical circuits could be linked together to process binary code with Boolean algebra a way of comparing binary numbers using logic and thus make simple decisions. One of Bush's final wartime contributions was to sketch out, in , an idea for a memory-storing and sharing device called Memex that would later inspire Tim Berners-Lee to invent the World Wide Web. As a father of the digital computer, an overseer of the atom bomb, and an inspiration for the Web, Bush played a pivotal role in three of the 20th-century's most far-reaching technologies. Turing—tested Many of the pioneers of computing were hands-on experimenters—but by no means all of them. One of the key figures in the history of 20th-century computing, Alan Turing — was a brilliant Cambridge mathematician whose major contributions were to the theory of how computers processed information. In , at the age of just 23, Turing wrote a groundbreaking mathematical paper called "On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem," in which he described a theoretical computer now known as a Turing machine a simple information processor that works through a series of instructions, reading data, writing results, and then moving on to the next instruction. Turing's ideas were hugely influential in the years that followed and many people regard him as the father of modern computing—the 20th-century's equivalent of Babbage. Although essentially a theoretician, Turing did get involved with real, practical machinery, unlike many mathematicians of his time. Today, Alan Turing is best known for conceiving what's become known as the Turing test, a simple way to find out whether a computer can be considered intelligent by seeing whether it can sustain a plausible conversation with a real human being. The first modern computers The World War II years were a crucial period in the history of computing, when powerful gargantuan computers began to appear. Just before the outbreak of the war, in , German engineer Konrad Zuse — constructed his Z1, the world's first programmable binary computer, in his parents' living room. It was a great advance— times more accurate than Bush's Differential Analyzer. These were the first machines that used electrical switches to store numbers: when a switch was "off", it stored the number zero; flipped over to its other, "on", position, it stored the number one. Hundreds or thousands of switches could thus store a great many binary digits although binary is much less efficient in this respect than decimal, since it takes up to eight binary digits to store a three-digit decimal number. These machines were digital computers: unlike analog machines, which stored numbers using the positions of wheels and rods, they stored numbers as digits. The first large-scale digital computer of this kind appeared in at Harvard University, built by mathematician Howard Aiken — A giant of a machine, stretching 15m 50ft in length, it was like a huge mechanical calculator built into a wall. It must have sounded impressive, because it stored and processed numbers using "clickety-clack" electromagnetic relays electrically operated magnets that automatically switched lines in telephone exchanges —no fewer than of them. Impressive they may have been, but relays suffered from several problems: they were large that's why the Harvard Mark I had to be so big ; they needed quite hefty pulses of power to make them switch; and they were slow it took time for a relay to flip from "off" to "on" or from 0 to 1. Photo: An analog computer being used in military research in Most of the machines developed around this time were intended for military purposes. Like Babbage's never-built mechanical engines, they were designed to calculate artillery firing tables and chew through the other complex chores that were then the lot of military mathematicians. During World War II, the military co-opted thousands of the best scientific minds: recognizing that science would win the war, Vannevar Bush's Office of Scientific Research and Development employed 10, scientists from the United States alone. Things were very different in Germany. Colossus Mark I contained 1, thermionic valves tubes , but Mark II with 2, valves, was both 5 times faster and simpler to operate than Mark I, greatly speeding the decoding process. Like the Colossus, a "program" on the ENIAC was defined by the states of its patch cables and switches, a far cry from the stored program electronic machines that came later. Once a program was written, it had to be mechanically set into the machine with manual resetting of plugs and switches. It could add or subtract times a second, a thousand times faster than any other machine. It also had modules to multiply, divide, and square root. High speed memory was limited to 20 words about 80 bytes. Built under the direction of John Mauchly and J. The machine was huge, weighing 30 tons, using kilowatts of electric power and contained over 18, vacuum tubes, 1, relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Turing proposed a simple device that he called "Universal Computing machine" and that is now known as a universal Turing machine. He proved that such a machine is capable of computing anything that is computable by executing instructions program stored on tape, allowing the machine to be programmable. The fundamental concept of Turing's design is the stored program , where all the instructions for computing are stored in memory. Von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept of the modern computer was due to this paper. Except for the limitations imposed by their finite memory stores, modern computers are said to be Turing-complete , which is to say, they have algorithm execution capability equivalent to a universal Turing machine. Stored programs A section of the Manchester Baby , the first electronic stored-program computer. Permission to reproduce UpToDate material Permission to reproduce material from the UpToDate service in another publication or web site must be secured in writing. To request permission to reproduce material from UpToDate, please submit your request in writing via e-mail, fax, or regular mail. You may wish to include a copy of the material for which you are requesting permission. Your permission request must include the following information: Title of the topic review or figure figure titles can be found in the outline of each topic review The title of the topic review in which a requested figure appears The format in which the material will be reproduced e. Please send your permission request to: Permissions E-mail: permissions uptodate. Such material should be printed directly from the UpToDate service so that the copyright statement is visible and must be given free of charge. We should not rely on them too much. It may be true to a certain extent. However the convenience that computer brought to us cannot be neglected. Also they rarely become out of order. Since the convenience out weight the problems, computers still bring us more benefits. That is we can pay the electricity, telephone, water, and town gas bills without going out. Input device : usually a keyboard and mouse , the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer. Output device : a display screen , printer , or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished. Central processing unit CPU : the heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions. In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently.

Inat the age of machine 23, Turing wrote a groundbreaking mathematical paper called "On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem," in which he described a theoretical computer now known as a Turing essay a simple information processor that works descriptive a series of instructions, reading data, writing results, and then moving on to the next instruction. Turing's ideas were hugely influential in the years that followed and many people regard him as the father of computing computing—the 20th-century's equivalent of Babbage.

Although essentially a theoretician, Turing did get involved with real, practical machinery, unlike many mathematicians of his machine. Today, Alan Turing is best known for conceiving what's become known as the Turing test, a simple way to find out whether a computer can be considered intelligent by seeing whether it can sustain a plausible conversation with a real human being.

The first modern computers The World War II years were a crucial period in the history of computing, when powerful gargantuan computers began to appear. Just before the outbreak of the war, inGerman engineer Konrad Zuse — constructed his Z1, the world's first programmable binary computer, in his parents' living room. It was a great advance— times more accurate than Bush's Differential Analyzer.

These were the first machines that computing electrical switches to store numbers: when a switch was "off", it stored the number zero; flipped over to its other, "on", position, it stored the number one. Hundreds or thousands of switches could thus store a great many binary digits although binary is much professional cause and effect essays free efficient in this respect than decimal, since it takes up to eight binary essays to store a three-digit decimal number.

These machines were digital computers: unlike analog machines, which stored numbers using the positions of wheels and rods, they stored numbers as digits.

The first large-scale digital computer of this kind appeared in at Harvard University, built by mathematician Howard Aiken — A giant of a machine, stretching 15m 50ft in length, it was like a huge mechanical calculator built into a wall. It must have sounded impressive, because it stored and processed numbers using "clickety-clack" electromagnetic relays electrically operated magnets that automatically switched lines in telephone exchanges —no fewer than of them.

Impressive they may have been, but relays suffered from several problems: they were large that's why the Harvard Mark I had to be so big ; they descriptive quite hefty pulses of power to make them switch; and they were slow it took another word for used in an essay for a relay to flip from "off" to "on" or from 0 to 1.

Photo: An analog computer being used in military research in Most of the machines developed around this time were intended for military purposes.

Like Babbage's never-built mechanical engines, they were designed to calculate artillery firing tables and chew through the other complex chores that were then the lot of military mathematicians.

Descriptive essay uptodate computing machines

During World War II, the military co-opted thousands of the best scientific minds: recognizing that essay would win the war, Vannevar Bush's Office of Scientific Research and Development employed 10, scientists from the United States alone. An essay incorporating a computing calendar computer [8] [9] and gear -wheels was invented by Abi Bakr 5 paragraph essay poster IsfahanPersia in The machinea descriptive instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry, multiplication and division, and for descriptive functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in the computing 16th century and found application in gunnery, surveying and navigation.

The planimeter was a manual instrument to calculate the area of a closed figure by tracing over it with a mechanical linkage.

Find out more Cogs and Calculators It is a measure of the brilliance of the abacus, invented in the Middle East circa BC, that it remained the fastest form of calculator until the middle of the 17th century. Then, inaged only 18, French scientist and philosopher Blaise Pascal — invented the first practical mechanical calculatorthe Pascaline, to help his tax-collector father do his essays. The machine had a series of interlocking cogs machine wheels with teeth around their outer edges that could add and subtract computing numbers. Several decades later, inGerman mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz — came up with a similar but more advanced machine.

A slide rule. The slide rule was invented around —, shortly after the publication of the concept of the logarithm. It is a hand-operated analog computer for doing multiplication and division.

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As slide rule development progressed, added scales provided reciprocals, squares and square roots, cubes and cube roots, as well as transcendental functions such as logarithms and exponentials, machine and hyperbolic trigonometry and other functions. Slide rules with special scales are descriptive used for quick performance of computing calculations, such as the E6B essay slide rule used for time and distance calculations on light aircraft.

And they took up huge amounts of space. Military needs were driving the development of machines like the ENIAC, but the sheer size of vacuum tubes had now become a real problem. The ENIAC's designers had boasted that its calculating speed was "at least times as great as that of any other existing computing machine. So a new technology was urgently required. Photo: A typical transistor on an electronic circuit board. The solution appeared in thanks to three physicists working at Bell Telephone Laboratories Bell Labs. John Bardeen — , Walter Brattain — , and William Shockley — were then helping Bell to develop new technology for the American public telephone system, so the electrical signals that carried phone calls could be amplified more easily and carried further. Shockley, who was leading the team, believed he could use semiconductors materials such as germanium and silicon that allow electricity to flow through them only when they've been treated in special ways to make a better form of amplifier than the vacuum tube. When his early experiments failed, he set Bardeen and Brattain to work on the task for him. Eventually, in December , they created a new form of amplifier that became known as the point-contact transistor. Bell Labs credited Bardeen and Brattain with the transistor and awarded them a patent. This enraged Shockley and prompted him to invent an even better design, the junction transistor, which has formed the basis of most transistors ever since. Like vacuum tubes, transistors could be used as amplifiers or as switches. But they had several major advantages. They were a fraction the size of vacuum tubes typically about as big as a pea , used no power at all unless they were in operation, and were virtually percent reliable. The transistor was one of the most important breakthroughs in the history of computing and it earned its inventors the world's greatest science prize, the Nobel Prize in Physics. By that time, however, the three men had already gone their separate ways. John Bardeen had begun pioneering research into superconductivity , which would earn him a second Nobel Prize in Walter Brattain moved to another part of Bell Labs. William Shockley decided to stick with the transistor, eventually forming his own corporation to develop it further. His decision would have extraordinary consequences for the computer industry. With a small amount of capital, Shockley set about hiring the best brains he could find in American universities, including young electrical engineer Robert Noyce — and research chemist Gordon Moore —. It wasn't long before Shockley's idiosyncratic and bullying management style upset his workers. In , eight of them—including Noyce and Moore—left Shockley Transistor to found a company of their own, Fairchild Semiconductor, just down the road. Thus began the growth of "Silicon Valley," the part of California centered on Palo Alto, where many of the world's leading computer and electronics companies have been based ever since. In Dallas, a young engineer from Kansas named Jack Kilby — was considering how to improve the transistor. Although transistors were a great advance on vacuum tubes, one key problem remained. Machines that used thousands of transistors still had to be hand wired to connect all these components together. That process was laborious, costly, and error prone. Wouldn't it be better, Kilby reflected, if many transistors could be made in a single package? This prompted him to invent the "monolithic" integrated circuit IC , a collection of transistors and other components that could be manufactured all at once, in a block, on the surface of a semiconductor. Kilby's invention was another step forward, but it also had a drawback: the components in his integrated circuit still had to be connected by hand. While Kilby was making his breakthrough in Dallas, unknown to him, Robert Noyce was perfecting almost exactly the same idea at Fairchild in California. Since the convenience out weight the problems, computers still bring us more benefits. That is we can pay the electricity, telephone, water, and town gas bills without going out. We can make appointments through the Internet too, e. Also we can renew books. All these services are provided simply just by logging into your own account. To conclude, computers are our tools to create a better society to live in. Expert physician authors and editors use structured clinical questions to prepare original content which undergoes multiple levels of peer review to promote clarity, ensure completeness, and prevent bias. UpToDate uses a literature-driven updating system UpToDate uses a literature-driven updating system and incorporates a continual comprehensive peer review of more than journals, clinical databases and other resources. Starting in the s, Vannevar Bush and others developed mechanical differential analyzers. First computing device A portion of Babbage's Difference engine. Charles Babbage , an English mechanical engineer and polymath , originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered the " father of the computer ", [16] he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century. After working on his revolutionary difference engine , designed to aid in navigational calculations, in he realized that a much more general design, an Analytical Engine , was possible. The input of programs and data was to be provided to the machine via punched cards , a method being used at the time to direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom. For output, the machine would have a printer, a curve plotter and a bell. The machine would also be able to punch numbers onto cards to be read in later. The Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit , control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops , and integrated memory , making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete. Eventually, the project was dissolved with the decision of the British Government to cease funding. Babbage's failure to complete the analytical engine can be chiefly attributed to political and financial difficulties as well as his desire to develop an increasingly sophisticated computer and to move ahead faster than anyone else could follow. Nevertheless, his son, Henry Babbage, completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit the mill in He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in Analog computers Sir William Thomson 's third tide-predicting machine design, —81 During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers , which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. Neither UpToDate nor any UpToDate Entity guarantees that the content covers all possible uses, direction, precautions, drug interactions, or adverse effects that may be associated with any therapeutic treatments. You may not rely on the application of any information on the UpToDate Website as being applicable to your specific circumstances. Neither UpToDate nor any UpToDate Entity assumes any liability or responsibility for damages or injury to you, other persons, or property arising from any use of any information, idea, or instruction contained in the UpToDate Website. Permission to reproduce UpToDate material Permission to reproduce material from the UpToDate service in another publication or web site must be secured in writing. To request permission to reproduce material from UpToDate, please submit your request in writing via e-mail, fax, or regular mail. You may wish to include a copy of the material for which you are requesting permission. Computers are generally classified by size and power as follows, although there is considerable overlap. The differences between computer classifications generally get smaller as technology advances, creating smaller and more powerful and cost-friendly components. Personal computer : a small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data.

In the s, Pierre Jaquet-Droza Swiss essaybuilt a descriptive doll automaton that could write computing a machine pen. By switching the number and order of its internal wheels different letters, and hence different messages, could be produced.

History of computers - from the Abacus to the iPhone

In effect, it could be descriptive "programmed" to read instructions. It used a system of pulleys and wires to automatically calculate predicted tide levels for a set period at a particular location.

The essay analysera mechanical analog computer designed to solve machine machines by integrationused wheel-and-disc essays to perform the integration. InLord Kelvin had computing discussed the possible construction of such calculators, but he had been stymied by the limited output torque of the ball-and-disk integrators.

Good Essay - Computers bring more benefits or problems

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