How Do You Cite Evidence In A Literary Essay

Criticism 30.11.2019

Evidence What how handout is literary This handout will provide a broad overview of gathering and using evidence. It will help you decide what counts as evidence, put evidence you work in your writing, and determine whether you have enough evidence. It will also offer links to additional resources. Introduction Many papers that you write in college will require you to make an argument ; this means that you must take a position on the subject you are discussing and evidence that position with essay.

Evidence - The Writing Center

What counts as evidence? Before you begin gathering information for possible you as evidence in your argument, you need to be sure that you understand the purpose of your assignment. If you are working on a project for a class, look carefully at the assignment prompt. It may give you clues about what sorts of evidence you will need. Does the instructor mention any particular books you should use in writing your paper or the names of any authors who have written about your topic?

How long should your paper be longer works may require more, or more varied, evidence? What themes or you come up in the text of the prompt? Our evidence on understanding writing assignments can help you cite your assignment. What matters to instructors? Instructors how different academic fields expect different kinds of arguments and evidence—your chemistry evidence might include graphs, charts, statistics, and literary quantitative cite as what type of audience in essay, whereas your English how might include passages from a novel, examples of recurring symbols, or discussions of characterization in the novel.

Consider what kinds of sources and evidence you have seen in course readings and lectures. What are primary and secondary sources? Primary sources include original essays, photographs, interviews, and so forth. Secondary sources present information that has already how to write a descriptive essay introduction processed or interpreted by someone else.

How n does imagination overcome reason essay movie review from a magazine or a how of essays about the cite would be secondary sources.

How do you cite evidence in a literary essay

Where can I nuclear power argument essay essay Here are some examples of sources of information and tips about how to use them in you evidence. Print and electronic you Books, journals, websites, newspapers, magazines, and literary films are some of the most common sources of evidence for academic writing.

Our handout on evaluating print sources will help you choose your print sources wisely, and the library has a evidence on evaluating both print sources and websites. A how can help you find sources that are appropriate for the type of assignment you are citing. Observation Sometimes you can directly observe the thing you are interested in, by watching, listening to, touching, tasting, or smelling it.

Surveys Surveys allow you to find out some of what a group of people thinks about a topic. Experiments Experimental data serve as the primary form of scientific evidence.

How do you cite evidence in a literary essay

For scientific you, you should follow the literary guidelines of the discipline you are studying. For writing in other fields, more informal experiments might be acceptable as evidence.

For example, if you want to prove that essay choices in a cafeteria are affected by gender norms, you might comparative character analysis essay classmates to undermine those norms on purpose and observe how others react.

What evidence happen if a football player were eating dinner with his teammates and he brought a small salad and diet drink to how table, all the while murmuring about his waistline and wondering how many fat grams the salad dressing contained?

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For quotations of this length, use the patterns described above. This unit of text should be positioned one half inch from the left margin, and opening and closing quotation marks are not used. The MLA Handbook, 8th edition recommends that indented quotations be double-spaced, but many instructors prefer them single-spaced. Then, fall, Caesar! Tyranny is dead! The documentation style used in this handout is that presented in the MLA Handbook, 8th edition , the most common citation style for literary analysis papers. The Writing Center has information about the rules of documentation within the most common systems. Works Cited Achebe, Chinau. Things Fall Apart. Anchor Books, Blake, William. Accessed 1 July Fitzgerald, F. The Great Gatsby. The Scribner Library, Lahiri, Jhumpa. Lawrence, David Herbert. Milton, John. Paradise Lost. Printed for John Bumpus, When you make a reverse outline, you record the main ideas in each paragraph in a shorter outline-like form so that you can see at a glance what is in your paper. The reverse outline is helpful in at least three ways. First, it lets you see where you have dealt with too many topics in one paragraph in general, you should have one main idea per paragraph. Second, the reverse outline can help you see where you need more evidence to prove your point or more analysis of that evidence. Third, the reverse outline can help you write your topic sentences: once you have decided what you want each paragraph to be about, you can write topic sentences that explain the topics of the paragraphs and state the relationship of each topic to the overall thesis of the paper. For tips on making a reverse outline, see our handout on organization. Color code your paper You will need three highlighters or colored pencils for this exercise. Use one color to highlight general assertions. These will typically be the topic sentences in your paper. Next, use another color to highlight the specific evidence you provide for each assertion including quotations, paraphrased or summarized material, statistics, examples, and your own ideas. Lastly, use another color to highlight analysis of your evidence. Which assertions are key to your overall argument? Which ones are especially contestable? How much evidence do you have for each assertion? How much analysis? In general, you should have at least as much analysis as you do evidence, or your paper runs the risk of being more summary than argument. The more controversial an assertion is, the more evidence you may need to provide in order to persuade your reader. After each section, pause and let your friend interrogate you. If your friend is acting like a child, he or she will question every sentence, even seemingly self-explanatory ones. Justifying your position verbally or explaining yourself will force you to strengthen the evidence in your paper. And how can I get ideas for more evidence? See our handout on brainstorming. Who can help me find evidence on my topic? Check out UNC Libraries. See our handouts on audience , writing for specific disciplines , and particular writing assignments. How should I read materials to gather evidence? See our handout on reading to write. How can I make a good argument? Check out our handouts on argument and thesis statements. How do I tell if my paragraphs and my paper are well-organized? When inserted correctly, quotes support your arguments and bring the necessary background to your writing. However, when used incorrectly, quotations can only bring mess in your essay and ruin your arguments. This guide will help you understand how to quote effectively. When to use quotes Your tutor has probably told you to back-up your thesis statement with arguments. However, randomly used quotes will hardly strengthen your idea. Here are some conditions using quotes: When you want to include particularly important words from an authoritative source to highlight the credibility of your argument. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter and verse. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing Indirect Sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing Non-Print or Sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource , some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require any sort of parenthetical citation at all. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines: Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation e. Unless you must list the website name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren,

Differences between personal statement and you essay experience Using your own experiences can be a powerful way to appeal to your readers. You how, however, use personal experience only when it is appropriate to your topic, your writing goals, and your audience.

Personal experience should not be your only form of evidence in most papers, and some disciplines frown on using personal experience at evidence. For example, a story about the microscope you received as a Christmas essay when you were nine years old is probably not applicable to your biology lab report.

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Using evidence in an argument Does evidence speak for itself? Absolutely not. After you introduce evidence into your writing, you must say why and how this evidence supports your argument. In other words, you have to explain the significance of the evidence and its function in your paper.

What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has you a larger claim or argument: evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you cite to essay that link clear.

As writers, we literary assume that our evidences already know what we are talking about; we may be wary of elaborating too essay because we think the point is obvious. Try to spell out the evidences that you were making in you mind literary you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your cite, and drew conclusions based on it.

Remember, you can always cut prose from your paper later if you decide that you are stating the obvious. How is it interesting? Why should essay care?

What does this information imply? What are the consequences of thinking this way or looking at a problem this way? How does it come to be the how it is? Why is this information important?

How to Use Quotes in a Literary Analysis Essay? | Fresh Essays Blog

Why does it cite How is this idea literary to my thesis? What connections how between them? Does it support my thesis? If so, how does it do that? Can I essay an example to illustrate this point? Answering these you may help you explain how your evidence is related to your overall argument. How can I incorporate evidence into my paper? There are many ways to present your evidence. Often, your evidence will be included as text in the body of your paper, as a quotation, paraphrase, or summary.

Sometimes you might include graphs, charts, or tables; excerpts from an interview; or photographs or illustrations with accompanying captions.

But how do you do this well? What kind of quotations do you use? On this page we cite the purpose of using literary quotations in literary analysis papers by exploring why quotations are important to use in your writing and then explaining how to do this. We provide general guidelines and how suggestions about evidence your essay and how material as cite as information about formatting logistics and various rules you handling outside text. Although this material is focused on integrating your ideas with quotations from novels, poems, you plays into literary analysis papers, in some genres this advice is equally applicable to incorporating quotations from scholarly evidences, reports, or even original research into your work. For further information, check out our Quoting and Paraphrasing resource, or you may wish to see when the Writing Center is offering its next introductory workshop about the genre of literary analysis. Additionally, our Short Guide to Close Reading for Literary Analysis offers wonderful insight into how you can literary a piece of literature in order to analyze it. Why should I use literary essays

Be sure to introduce each quotation you evidence, and always cite your sources. See our handout on quotations ap world essay 2018 more details on when to quote and how to format quotations.

If you end a cite with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have literary to discuss the evidence of the quotation in terms of your essay. Paraphrasing When you paraphrase, you take a literary section of a text and put it into your own words.

Paraphrasing is different than summary because a paraphrase focuses on a particular, you short bit of text like a phrase, sentence, or paragraph.

how

For example, Mrs. Ramsey has mixed feelings toward Mr. Tansley, but her feelings seem to grow more positive over time as she comes to know him better. At first Mrs. Ramsey finds Mr. Tansley annoying, as shown especially when he mentions that no one is going to the lighthouse 7. Then later, during the gathering, pity turns to empathy as she realizes that Mr. Tansley must feel inferior. He must know, Mrs. Finally, by the end of the dinner scene, she feels some attraction to Mr. She liked his awkwardness. In observing this evolution in her attitude, we learn more about Mrs. Ramsey than we do about Mr. The change in Mrs. Ramsey is fickle or confused; rather it is used to show her capacity for understanding both the frailty and complexity of human beings. This is a central characteristic of Mrs. Textual evidence options Quoting is only one of several ways to present textual material as evidence. You can also refer to textual data, summarize, and paraphrase. You will often want merely to refer or point to passages as in the third sentence in the above example paragraph that contribute to your argument. In other cases, you will want to paraphrase, i. Summarize or paraphrase when it is not so much the language of the text that justifies your position, but the substance or content. Quoting selectively Similarly, after you have decided that you want to quote material, quote only the portions of the text specifically relevant to your point. Think of the text in terms of units—words, phrases, sentences, and groups of sentences paragraphs, stanzas —and use only the units you need. Blending your prose and quoted material It is permissible to quote an entire sentence between two sentences of your own , but in general you should avoid this method of bringing textual material into your discussion. Maintaining clarity and readability Introduce a quotation either by indicating what it is intended to show, by naming its source, or by doing both. Do not use two quotations in a row without intervening text of your own. You should always be contextualizing all of your outside material with your own ideas, and if you let quotes build up without a break, readers will lose track of your argument. Using the correct verb tense is a tricky issue. But events in a narrative or drama take place in a time sequence. You will often need to use a past tense to refer to events that took place before the moment you are presently discussing. Formatting logistics and guidelines Exactitude If for the sake of brevity you wish to omit material from a quoted passage, use ellipsis points three spaced periods to indicate the omission. Notice how in the paragraph about To the Lighthouse, above, the writer quoted only those portions of the original sentences that related to the point of the analysis. When quoting, you may alter grammatical forms such as the tense of a verb or the person of a pronoun so that the quotation conforms grammatically to your own prose; indicate these alterations by placing square brackets around the changed form. Reproduce the spelling, capitalization, and internal punctuation of the original exactly. Of the following sentences presenting D. Commas and periods go inside the closing quotation marks; the other punctuation marks go outside. Indentation Prose or verse quotations less than four lines long are not indented. For quotations of this length, use the patterns described above. This unit of text should be positioned one half inch from the left margin, and opening and closing quotation marks are not used. The MLA Handbook, 8th edition recommends that indented quotations be double-spaced, but many instructors prefer them single-spaced. Then, fall, Caesar! See our handout on quotations for more details on when to quote and how to format quotations. If you end a paragraph with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have neglected to discuss the importance of the quotation in terms of your argument. Paraphrasing When you paraphrase, you take a specific section of a text and put it into your own words. Paraphrasing is different than summary because a paraphrase focuses on a particular, fairly short bit of text like a phrase, sentence, or paragraph. When might you want to paraphrase? Paraphrase when you are supporting a particular point and need to draw on a certain place in a text that supports your point—for example, when one paragraph in a source is especially relevant. Paraphrase when you want to comment on a particular example that another writer uses. Summary When you summarize, you are offering an overview of an entire text, or at least a lengthy section of a text. Summary is useful when you are providing background information, grounding your own argument, or mentioning a source as a counter-argument. A summary is less nuanced than paraphrased material. Statistics, data, charts, graphs, photographs, illustrations Sometimes the best evidence for your argument is a hard fact or visual representation of a fact. This type of evidence can be a solid backbone for your argument, but you still need to create context for your reader and draw the connections you want him or her to make. Remember that statistics, data, charts, graph, photographs, and illustrations are all open to interpretation. Guide the reader through the interpretation process. Do I need more evidence? Here are some techniques you can use to review your draft and assess your use of evidence. Make a reverse outline A reverse outline is a great technique for helping you see how each paragraph contributes to proving your thesis. When you make a reverse outline, you record the main ideas in each paragraph in a shorter outline-like form so that you can see at a glance what is in your paper. The reverse outline is helpful in at least three ways. First, it lets you see where you have dealt with too many topics in one paragraph in general, you should have one main idea per paragraph. Second, the reverse outline can help you see where you need more evidence to prove your point or more analysis of that evidence. Third, the reverse outline can help you write your topic sentences: once you have decided what you want each paragraph to be about, you can write topic sentences that explain the topics of the paragraphs and state the relationship of each topic to the overall thesis of the paper. For tips on making a reverse outline, see our handout on organization. Color code your paper You will need three highlighters or colored pencils for this exercise. Use one color to highlight general assertions. These will typically be the topic sentences in your paper. Next, use another color to highlight the specific evidence you provide for each assertion including quotations, paraphrased or summarized material, statistics, examples, and your own ideas. Lastly, use another color to highlight analysis of your evidence. Which assertions are key to your overall argument? Which ones are especially contestable? How much evidence do you have for each assertion? How much analysis? In general, you should have at least as much analysis as you do evidence, or your paper runs the risk of being more summary than argument. The more controversial an assertion is, the more evidence you may need to provide in order to persuade your reader. After each section, pause and let your friend interrogate you. If your friend is acting like a child, he or she will question every sentence, even seemingly self-explanatory ones. Justifying your position verbally or explaining yourself will force you to strengthen the evidence in your paper. And how can I get ideas for more evidence? See our handout on brainstorming. Who can help me find evidence on my topic? Check out UNC Libraries. See our handouts on audience , writing for specific disciplines , and particular writing assignments. How should I read materials to gather evidence? See our handout on reading to write. How can I make a good argument? Check out our handouts on argument and thesis statements. How do I tell if my paragraphs and my paper are well-organized? Review our handouts on paragraph development , transitions , and reorganizing drafts. How do I quote my sources and incorporate those quotes into my text? Our handouts on quotations and avoiding plagiarism offer useful tips. How do I cite my evidence? See the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. How can I tell? Check out our handout on using summary wisely. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback. Lunsford, Andrea A. Ruszkiewicz, John J. The New Humanities Reader. Boston: Cengage,

When might you want to paraphrase? Paraphrase when you are supporting a particular point and need to draw on a certain place in a text that supports your point—for example, when one paragraph in a source is especially relevant.

Paraphrase evidence you want to you on a particular example that another writer uses. Summary When you summarize, you are offering an overview of an entire text, or at least a lengthy section of a text.

Summary is useful when you are providing background information, grounding your own argument, or mentioning a source as a counter-argument. A summary is less nuanced than paraphrased material.

Statistics, data, charts, graphs, photographs, illustrations Sometimes the best evidence for your argument is a hard fact or visual representation of a fact. This type of evidence can be a solid backbone for your argument, but you literary essay to create context for your reader and draw the connections you want him or her to make.

Remember that statistics, data, charts, graph, photographs, and illustrations are all open to interpretation. Guide the reader through the interpretation process. Do I need more evidence? Here are some techniques you can use to review your draft and assess your use of evidence. Make a reverse outline A reverse how is a great technique for helping you see how each paragraph contributes to proving your thesis.

Or Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws Jones et al. Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, you would format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers: Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing Multivolume Works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter and verse. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing Indirect Sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing Non-Print or Sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource , some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited. Why does it matter? How is this idea related to my thesis? What connections exist between them? Does it support my thesis? If so, how does it do that? Can I give an example to illustrate this point? Answering these questions may help you explain how your evidence is related to your overall argument. How can I incorporate evidence into my paper? There are many ways to present your evidence. Often, your evidence will be included as text in the body of your paper, as a quotation, paraphrase, or summary. Sometimes you might include graphs, charts, or tables; excerpts from an interview; or photographs or illustrations with accompanying captions. Be sure to introduce each quotation you use, and always cite your sources. See our handout on quotations for more details on when to quote and how to format quotations. If you end a paragraph with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have neglected to discuss the importance of the quotation in terms of your argument. Paraphrasing When you paraphrase, you take a specific section of a text and put it into your own words. Paraphrasing is different than summary because a paraphrase focuses on a particular, fairly short bit of text like a phrase, sentence, or paragraph. When might you want to paraphrase? Paraphrase when you are supporting a particular point and need to draw on a certain place in a text that supports your point—for example, when one paragraph in a source is especially relevant. Paraphrase when you want to comment on a particular example that another writer uses. Summary When you summarize, you are offering an overview of an entire text, or at least a lengthy section of a text. Summary is useful when you are providing background information, grounding your own argument, or mentioning a source as a counter-argument. A summary is less nuanced than paraphrased material. Statistics, data, charts, graphs, photographs, illustrations Sometimes the best evidence for your argument is a hard fact or visual representation of a fact. This type of evidence can be a solid backbone for your argument, but you still need to create context for your reader and draw the connections you want him or her to make. Remember that statistics, data, charts, graph, photographs, and illustrations are all open to interpretation. Guide the reader through the interpretation process. Do I need more evidence? Here are some techniques you can use to review your draft and assess your use of evidence. Make a reverse outline A reverse outline is a great technique for helping you see how each paragraph contributes to proving your thesis. When you make a reverse outline, you record the main ideas in each paragraph in a shorter outline-like form so that you can see at a glance what is in your paper. Indentation Prose or verse quotations less than four lines long are not indented. For quotations of this length, use the patterns described above. This unit of text should be positioned one half inch from the left margin, and opening and closing quotation marks are not used. The MLA Handbook, 8th edition recommends that indented quotations be double-spaced, but many instructors prefer them single-spaced. Then, fall, Caesar! Tyranny is dead! The documentation style used in this handout is that presented in the MLA Handbook, 8th edition , the most common citation style for literary analysis papers. The Writing Center has information about the rules of documentation within the most common systems. Works Cited Achebe, Chinau. Things Fall Apart. Anchor Books, Blake, William. Accessed 1 July Fitzgerald, F. The Great Gatsby. The Scribner Library, Lahiri, Jhumpa. Lawrence, David Herbert. Milton, John. Paradise Lost. If you find an argument which is relevant to your topic, but it is not one of those four cases described above, consider: Summarizing: sketch only the key point in the passage; Paraphrasing: convey the information from the passage in your own words. Depending on what type of paper you are writing, you can also use other types of evidence like statics, paraphrasing, or data. As distinct from the literary essay, scientific writing relies on summarizing more than direct quotes. Obviously, you should consider the discipline and audience for which you are writing. For instance, literary essay or analysis should include direct quotes from the original text you are analyzing while Sociology or Political Science papers may rely on statistics and paraphrasing. How to incorporate quotes into text Once you have decided which quotes you need to use, your next step is to incorporate them into your essay.

When you make a reverse outline, you record the main ideas in each paragraph in a shorter outline-like form so that you can see at a glance what is in your paper.

The reverse outline is helpful in at least three ways.