Graphic organizers visually represent the structure of abstract concepts. Concept maps are based on visual imagery and the observation that pictures and line drawings are often more easily comprehended than the words that represent an abstract concept Terry, The configuration of a concept map will be determined by the logical structure of the abstract concept. Types of concept maps include chronological, hierarchical, flow chart, spider, and systems maps.
Each type of concept map has advantages and disadvantages. Flow chart and spider concept maps are easy to configure and read but contain minimal information and do not facilitate critical thinking. Chronological and hierarchical concept maps follow a definite pattern and are easily read but usually do not depict relationships and consequently may facilitate only limited critical thinking. Systems concept maps are more likely to facilitate critical thinking. Expanded nursing roles have increased the opportunity for making high stakes decisions and nurses must possess CT as a central learnable skill and outcome of undergraduate and graduate nursing programs Vacek, An active strategy for teaching students the skills to think critically is the concept map — a cognitive tool that encourages learners to process information deeply in order to understand study material Lee et al.
In a concept map, each word or phrase is connected to another and linked back to the original idea, word, or phrase. Concept mapping is considered a valuable active teaching method because it prompts learners to make connections and establish relationships between new concepts and prior schema McMillan, ; Pottier et al.
Learners use graphic representations to depict their understanding of the meaning of a set of concepts, to organize and represent knowledge, to summarize and analyze their ideas, and to visualize their thinking Lee et al. Studies of the effect of concept mapping on CT among students in Bachelor of Science in Nursing BSN programs, although scarce, have shown generally positive and significant effects. Tools used to measure CT across these studies have varied widely.
Chen et al. Sarhangi et al. Among fifth semester BSN students, concept mapping led to a significant increase in CT scores in all domains except analysis and deductive reasoning compared with the control group not exposed to concept mapping Sarhangi et al. The HESI exam has been used more than 47, times and has both reliability and validity measures that make it useful and practical Morrison et al.
The HESI CT exam prompts responses to situations encountered in healthcare settings in four domains: problem solving, biases and ethical dilemmas, argument analysis, and analysis of data HESI, n. Previous studies have not assessed the development of CT in the basic science courses that are foundational for nursing science.
The current study fills these gaps in the evidence base by exploring the development of CT among nursing students in a required pathophysiology and pharmacology course during the first year of a BSN program in response to concept mapping as an interventional strategy, using the HESI CT. The intervention group was taught by traditional didactic lecturing and used concept mapping, while the control group was taught by traditional didactic lecturing alone.
Participants had not previously been exposed to concept mapping in their curriculum. All participants voluntarily took part and signed an informed consent prior to administration of the pretest. Participants were reassured that the data were confidential. With the concept map they have a wonderful visual display of how they can find the problem and come up with solutions.
What the teacher in me liked was that the students were now working on the entire project and not just one part of it. Another advantage is that it adapts to any type of learning style.
Students can color code their ideas download the original PDF file to zoom in more clearly on specific parts of the mind map.
The great thing is that using this software really makes them reflect. I see the students go back to their map and change things. They can color code ideas. They control the narrative, which is the best thing. An advantage of this software is that as the concept map is created, concepts can be moved around, added, removed, and redefined. There is definitely a transfer of knowledge as the students decide to reuse the software in other classes.
With concept mapping you get an idea and it just grows. Formative and summative evaluation Students use their C-maps to review for the final evaluation download the original PDF file to zoom in more clearly on specific parts of the mind map. During the session, I sit down with the students to look at the work.
If the students have any questions they can ask and they can use the feedback I give them to improve the Cmap before they submit it for evaluation. For the review before the final evaluation the students bring their concept maps to class. The college implemented a BYOD policy and students often share their resources. Working in a group there are always one or 2 students who take on the task and then share the document with their teammates.
I noticed that after using this software in class there was a gain score at the final exam. After all of the reflection that went into creating the concept map the students found that they were better able to remember the content for the exam and were also able to give more examples.
They had learned the key concepts for the course.
The college implemented a BYOD policy and students often share their resources. They transfer the theory into practice.
Do they bring their results to class? Another advantage is that it adapts to any type of learning style. At the end of the semester, CT baseline scores were compared to end of semester CT scores and a significant improvement in CT scores could be observed independent of course specific map content.
If the students have any questions they can ask and they can use the feedback I give them to improve the Cmap before they submit it for evaluation. Previous studies have not assessed the development of CT in the basic science courses that are foundational for nursing science. They had learned the key concepts for the course. In the past, most students struggled with the software and I decided to work with the students in the class to facilitate the process.
Concept map topics were assigned by the course faculty based on topics discussed in each class.
The nursing students in the experimental group were educated by a teaching assistant about concept mapping and its appropriate use in the context of pathophysiology and pharmacology during a one hour session as part of the first class. Types of concept maps include chronological, hierarchical, flow chart, spider, and systems maps. Methodology and Results A Solomon four-group design was used in each of our three studies of concept mapping as a technique for facilitating critical thinking. I think concept maps help students build better understanding and are well worth the time and effort.
Types of concept maps include chronological, flow chart, spider, hierarchical, and systems maps. Concept maps were not graded; however, the course faculty provided the students with constructive feedback on every concept map. Thank's for the suggestion. I think concept maps help students build better understanding and are well worth the time and effort. Participants were provided with detailed verbal and written explanations of the study and were advised that they could withdraw from the study at any time. With concept mapping you get an idea and it just grows.
Types of concept maps include chronological, flow chart, spider, hierarchical, and systems maps. Neither the teaching assistant nor the course faculty was an investigator in this research. Tools used to measure CT across these studies have varied widely. CT is one of the most highly valued educational outcomes of nursing education, and both national and international educational organizations, such as the Institute of Medicine and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing , recognize its importance as an outcome criterion in postsecondary education and mandate that new nurse graduates think critically to solve problems in a variety of clinical settings. Do they bring their results to class? The independent variable was whether or not concept maps were constructed during preparation for each unit test.
The teaching assistant, who facilitated the training by providing guidance and feedback regarding the appropriate concept map process, answered questions about the process of developing a concept map. The introductory session included a brief case study scenario of an adult patient with diabetes. With concept mapping you get an idea and it just grows.