As he adapted to the changing opportunities of his time, he also adopted the pen name, "Azad" to signify his freedom from the traditional Muslim ways of his ancestors. The freedom of his mind turned him naturally towards the great enterprise of the day, the struggle for independence. Azad was introduced to the freedom struggle by revolutionary Shyam Sunder Chakravarthy. Most revolutionaries in Bengal were Hindus, and many were greatly surprised by his willingness to join the freedom struggle alongwith them, while others were skeptical of his intentions.
Azad also discovered that the revolutionary activities were mostly restricted to Bengal and Bihar. Creating his own niche within the movement, he helped to set up secret revolutionary centres all over North India and in Bombay now Mumbai.
Most revolutionaries of the day were anti-Muslim, because they felt that the British Government was using the Muslim community against India's freedom struggle. Azad tried to convince his colleagues that indifference and hostility towards the Muslims would only make the path to freedom more difficult.
Abul Kalam Azad began the publication of a journal called Al Hilal The Crescent , in June , to increase the revolutionary recruits amongst the Muslims. The energy of his efforts paid off, and Al Hilal's circulation passed 25, within two years, before the heavy hand of the British Government used the Press Act and then the Defence of India Regulations Act in , to shut the journal down. Undeterred, Azad continued his struggle, both for the Independence of India and his vision of an undivided nation in which people of all faiths would live harmoniously.
From his earlier revolutionary ways, he now turned to Gandhiji's popular Civil Disobedience Movement and joined the Indian National Congress in January He presided over the special session of the Congress Party in September and at the age of 35, was the youngest man to be elected as the President of the Congress.
He was arrested in , for violation of the salt laws as part of Gandhiji's Salt Satyagraha. It is because, Maulana was born in a family where Arabic and Persian were used more frequently than Urdu. He was born in Mekkah, given formal education in Persian and Arabic languages but he was never taught Urdu.
It is often said that his book India wins Freedom is about his political life and Ghubar-e-Khatir deals with his social and spiritual life. The Indian public had been angered by the passage of the Rowlatt Acts in , which severely restricted civil liberties and individual rights. Consequently, thousands of political activists had been arrested and many publications banned. The killing of unarmed civilians at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar on 13 April had provoked intense outrage all over India, alienating most Indians, including long-time British supporters, from the authorities.
The Khilafat struggle had also peaked with the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the raging Turkish War of Independence , which had made the caliphate's position precarious.
India's main political party, the Indian National Congress came under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, who had aroused excitement all over India when he led the farmers of Champaran and Kheda in a successful revolt against British authorities in Gandhi organised the people of the region and pioneered the art of Satyagraha — combining mass civil disobedience with complete non-violence and self-reliance.
Taking charge of the Congress, Gandhi also reached out to support the Khilafat struggle, helping to bridge Hindu-Muslim political divides. Azad and the Ali brothers — Maulana Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali — warmly welcomed Congress support and began working together on a programme of non-co-operation by asking all Indians to boycott British-run schools, colleges, courts, public services, the civil service, police and military.
Non-violence and Hindu-Muslim unity were universally emphasised, while the boycott of foreign goods, especially clothes were organised. Although Azad and other leaders were soon arrested, the movement drew out millions of people in peaceful processions, strikes and protests.
This period marked a transformation in Azad's own life. Along with fellow Khilafat leaders Dr. The three men founded the Jamia Millia Islamia in Delhi as an institution of higher education managed entirely by Indians without any British support or control. Both Azad and Gandhi shared a deep passion for religion and Azad developed a close friendship with him.
He adopted the Islamic prophet Muhammad's ideas by living simply, rejecting material possessions and pleasures. He began to spin his own clothes using khadi on the charkha , and began frequently living and participating in the ashrams organised by Gandhi. The movement had a sudden decline with rising incidences of violence; a nationalist mob killed 22 policemen in Chauri Chaura in Fearing degeneration into violence, Gandhi asked Indians to suspend the revolt and undertook a five-day fast to repent and encourage others to stop the rebellion.
Although the movement stopped all over India, several Congress leaders and activists were disillusioned with Gandhi. Azad's close friend Chittaranjan Das co-founded the Swaraj Party , breaking from Gandhi's leadership. Despite the circumstances, Azad remained firmly committed to Gandhi's ideals and leadership. In , he became the youngest man to be elected Congress president.
Azad led efforts to organise the Flag Satyagraha in Nagpur. Azad served as president of the Unity Conference in Delhi, using his position to work to re-unite the Swarajists and the Khilafat leaders under the common banner of the Congress. In the years following the movement, Azad travelled across India, working extensively to promote Gandhi's vision, education and social reform.
Rajagopalachari Azad became an inspiring personality in the field of politics. Azad became an important national leader, and served on the Congress Working Committee and in the offices of general secretary and president many times.
The political environment in India re-energised in with nationalist outrage against the Simon Commission appointed to propose constitutional reforms.
The commission included no Indian members and did not even consult Indian leaders and experts. In response, the Congress and other political parties appointed a commission under Motilal Nehru to propose constitutional reforms from Indian opinions. Azad endorsed the ending of separate electorates based on religion, and called for an independent India to be committed to secularism. At the Congress session in Guwahati , Azad endorsed Gandhi's call for dominion status for India within a year.
If not granted, the Congress would adopt the goal of complete political independence for India. Despite his affinity for Gandhi, Azad also drew close to the young radical leaders Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Bose, who had criticised the delay in demanding full independence. Azad developed a close friendship with Nehru and began espousing socialism as the means to fight inequality, poverty and other national challenges. Azad decided the name of Muslim political party Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam.
When Gandhi embarked on the Dandi Salt March that inaugurated the Salt Satyagraha in , Azad organised and led the nationalist raid, albeit non-violent on the Dharasana salt works to protest the salt tax and restriction of its production and sale.
The biggest nationalist upheaval in a decade, Azad was imprisoned along with millions of people, and would frequently be jailed from to for long periods of time. Following the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in , Azad was amongst millions of political prisoners released. When elections were called under the Government of India Act , Azad was appointed to organise the Congress election campaign, raising funds, selecting candidates and organising volunteers and rallies across India.
He again declined to contest elections in , and helped head the party's efforts to organise elections and preserve co-ordination and unity amongst the Congress governments elected in different provinces.
Rajendra Prasad and Chakravaachari regarding the espousal of socialism as the Congress goal. Azad had backed the election of Nehru as Congress president, and supported the resolution endorsing socialism. Azad also supported Nehru's re-election in , at the consternation of many conservative Congressmen.
Azad supported dialogue with Jinnah and the Muslim League between and over a Congress-League coalition and broader political co-operation. Less inclined to brand the League as obstructive, Azad nevertheless joined the Congress's vehement rejection of Jinnah's demand that the League be seen exclusively as the representative of Indian Muslims.
Main article: Quit India Movement In , Azad served as an intermediary between the supporters of and the Congress faction led by Congress president Subhash Bose, who criticised Gandhi for not launching another rebellion against the British and sought to move the Congress away from Gandhi's leadership. Azad stood by Gandhi with most other Congress leaders, but reluctantly endorsed the Congress's exit from the assemblies in following the inclusion of India in World War II.
Nationalists were infuriated that Viceroy Lord Linlithgow had entered India into the war without consulting national leaders.
Although willing to support the British effort in return for independence, Azad sided with Gandhi when the British ignored the Congress overtures. Azad's criticism of Jinnah and the League intensified as Jinnah called Congress rule in the provinces as "Hindu Raj", calling the resignation of the Congress ministries as a " Day of Deliverance " for Muslims.
Jinnah and the League's separatist agenda was gaining popular support amongst Muslims. Muslim religious and political leaders criticised Azad as being too close to the Congress and placing politics before Muslim welfare. Speaking vehemently against Jinnah's Two-Nation Theory —the notion that Hindus and Muslims were distinct nations—Azad lambasted religious separatism and exhorted all Muslims to preserve a united India, as all Hindus and Muslims were Indians who shared deep bonds of brotherhood and nationhood.
In his presidential address, Azad said: " Full eleven centuries have passed by since then. Islam has now as great a claim on the soil of India as Hinduism.
If Hinduism has been the religion of the people here for several thousands of years Islam also has been their religion for a thousand years. Just as a Hindu can say with pride that he is an Indian and follows Hinduism, so also we can say with equal pride that we are Indians and follow Islam.
I shall enlarge this orbit still further. The Indian Christian is equally entitled to say with pride that he is an Indian and is following a religion of India, namely Christianity.
In face of increasing popular disenchantment with the British across India, Gandhi and Patel advocated an all-out rebellion demanding immediate independence. Azad was wary and sceptical of the idea, aware that India's Muslims were increasingly looking to Jinnah and had supported the war. Feeling that a struggle would not force a British exit, Azad and Nehru warned that such a campaign would divide India and make the war situation even more precarious.
In the end, Azad became convinced that decisive action in one form or another had to be taken, as the Congress had to provide leadership to India's people and would lose its standing if it did not.
Supporting the call for the British to " Quit India ", Azad began exhorting thousands of people in rallies across the nation to prepare for a definitive, all-out struggle. As Congress president, Azad travelled across India and met with local and provincial Congress leaders and grass-roots activists, delivering speeches and planning the rebellion.
Despite their previous differences, Azad worked closely with Patel and Dr. Rajendra Prasad to make the rebellion as effective as possible. On 7 August at the Gowalia Tank in Mumbai, Congress president Azad inaugurated the struggle with a vociferous speech exhorting Indians into action. Just two days later, the British arrested Azad and the entire Congress leadership. While Gandhi was incarcerated at the Aga Khan Palace in Pune , Azad and the Congress Working Committee were imprisoned at a fort in Ahmednagar , where they would remain under isolation and intense security for nearly four years.Gandhi organised the people of the region and pioneered the art of Satyagraha — combining mass civil disobedience with complete non-violence and self-reliance. I am an essential element, which has gone to build India. The commission included no Indian members and did not even consult Indian leaders and experts. Following independence, Azad served as the Minister of Education in Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet from to As a lieutenant of Mahatma Gandhi, the statement said Abul Kalam taught himself to read, write and speak country a new favour. Sensing that English was fast becoming the international language, Maulana Sahib injected in the public life of the the language. Main article: Quit India Movement InAzad served as an intermediary between Ap biology big ideas review journal newspaper supporters of and the Congress essay led by Congress president Subhash Bose, who criticised Gandhi for not launching another rebellion against the power. Undeterred, Azad continued his struggle, both for the Independence of India and his essay of an undivided Successfully defended dissertation abstract in which people of all faiths would live harmoniously. Using this style, readers can pick a writer, go multiplication of two writer numbers 7, x 2, randomly paragraphs and attempting to draw links between them.
Undeterred, Azad continued his struggle, both for the Independence of India and his vision of an undivided nation in which people of all faiths would live harmoniously. Although Azad and other leaders were soon arrested, the movement drew out millions of people in peaceful processions, strikes and protests. The governments of the Bombay Presidency , United Provinces , Punjab and Delhi prohibited his entry into the provinces and Azad was moved to a jail in Ranchi , where he was incarcerated until 1 January These letters were never sent to him because there was no permission for that during the imprisonment and after the release in , he gave all these letters to his friend Ajmal Khan who let it published for the first time in Faced with the serious possibility of a civil war, Azad abstained from voting on the resolution, remaining silent and not speaking throughout the AICC session, which ultimately approved the plan. Non-violence and Hindu-Muslim unity were universally emphasised, while the boycott of foreign goods, especially clothes were organised.
Jinnah and the League's separatist agenda was gaining popular support amongst Muslims. He supported a confederation of autonomous provinces with their own constitutions but common defence and economy, an arrangement suggested in the British Cabinet Mission Plan of May I shall enlarge this orbit still further. Azad's close friend Chittaranjan Das co-founded the Swaraj Party , breaking from Gandhi's leadership. When they learnt of Gandhi holding talks with Jinnah in Mumbai in , Azad criticised Gandhi's move as counter-productive and ill-advised.
As he adapted to the changing opportunities of his time, he also adopted the pen name, "Azad" to signify his freedom from the traditional Muslim ways of his ancestors. At the same time he was exposed to the writings of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. The Khilafat struggle had also peaked with the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the raging Turkish War of Independence , which had made the caliphate's position precarious. Sharing daily chores, Azad also taught the Persian and Urdu languages, as well as Indian and world history to several of his companions.
He also criticised Muslim politicians for focusing on communal issues before the national interest and rejected the All India Muslim League 's communal separatism. His firm belief in Hindu-Muslim unity earned him the respect of the Hindu community and he still remains one of the most important symbols of communal harmony in modern India.
Both Azad and Gandhi shared a deep passion for religion and Azad developed a close friendship with him. With the end of the war, the British agreed to transfer power to Indian hands. Azad supported dialogue with Jinnah and the Muslim League between and over a Congress-League coalition and broader political co-operation. The paper shocked the conservatives and created a furore, but there were many Muslims ready to follow him. As India's first Minister of Education, he emphasised on educating the rural poor and girls.
Therefore he [Azad] stayed with him [Khan Ata] for five years and was part of the editorial team of the He began to spin his own clothes using khadi on the charkha , and began frequently living and participating in the ashrams organised by Gandhi. With the onset of World War I , the British stiffened censorship and restrictions on political activity. Less inclined to brand the League as obstructive, Azad nevertheless joined the Congress's vehement rejection of Jinnah's demand that the League be seen exclusively as the representative of Indian Muslims.
Born in , Firoz Bakht of exalted destiny , commonly called Muhiyuddin Ahmad, was only two years old, when his father Maulana Khairuddin, settled at Calcutta and became famous there as a spiritual guide.