This can occur in school by our teachers and other pupils! It is not a fixed concept; it can change if your self-concept is constantly being contradicted. Typing and Labelling This highlights the way that teachers categorise their pupils. Hargreaves, Hester and Mellor Deviance in Classrooms studied how pupils became typified and classified. They conducted their study in two schools by interviewing teachers and observing in class.
It is therefore a gradual process that changes over time. Through this process the teacher can have an important influence on the progress of their pupils. Durkheim the founder of functionalist theory identified the latent role of education as one of socializing people into society's mainstream. Functionalists point to other latent roles of education such as transmission of core values and social control.
The core values in American education reflect those characteristics that support the political and economic systems that originally fueled education. Therefore, children in America receive rewards for following schedules, following directions, meeting deadlines, and obeying authority. The most important value permeating the American classroom is individualism—the ideology that advocates the liberty rights, or independent action, of the individual.
American students learn early, unlike their Japanese or Chinese counterparts, that society seeks out and reveres the best individual, whether that person achieves the best score on a test or the most points on the basketball court.
Even collaborative activities focus on the leader, and team sports single out the one most valuable player of the year. Conversely, Japanese students, in a culture that values community in place of individuality, learn to be ashamed if someone singles them out, and learn social esteem—how to bring honor to the group, rather than to themselves.
Going to school in a capitalist nation, American students also quickly learn the importance of competition, through both competitive learning games in the classroom, and through activities and athletics outside the classroom. Some kind of prize or reward usually motivates them to play, so students learn early to associate winning with possessing.
Likewise, schools overtly teach patriotism, a preserver of political structure. Students must learn the Pledge of Allegiance and the stories of the nation's heroes and exploits.
The need to instill patriotic values is so great that mythology often takes over, and teachers repeat stories of George Washington's honesty or Abraham Lincoln's virtue even though the stories themselves such as Washington confessing to chopping down the cherry tree may be untrue. Another benefit that functionalists see in education is sorting—separating students on the basis of merit. Society's needs demand that the most capable people get channeled into the most important occupations.
Schools identify the most capable students early. They saw this process as a beneficial function in society. After sorting has taken place, the next function of education, networking making interpersonal connections , is inevitable. People in high school and college network with those in similar classes and majors. This networking may become professional or remain personal. The most significant role of education in this regard is matchmaking.
Sociologists primarily interest themselves in how sorting and networking lead couples together of similar backgrounds, interests, education, and income potential. Landis asserts that symbolic interactionism focuses on person to person interaction everyday life.
This theory is relevant because the interactionist theory focuses on everyday social interaction among individuals rather than on huge societal structures such as gender and education. In this regard meanings generated by interaction assume major importance. It concentrates its sociological sense on what is happening the very moment when people interact.
People are understood to be acting on the basis of the meanings that situations have for them for instance meanings are shared by teacher and pupil through verbal communication in the classroom. Such meanings may become widely shared and unproblematic. Kirby et al. Thus teacher and pupil relationship in classroom. Sullivian, says that symbolic interactionism emphasizes that human behaviour is influenced by definitions and meanings that are created and maintained through symbolic interaction with others.
The symbolic interactionist perspective assumes that one's self-concept is created through the interpretation of the symbolic gestures, words, actions, and appearances of others as observed during social interactions. Relevance of symbolic interactionism to the classroom teacher. Teacher expectations are communicated overtly and covertly in teacher pupil interaction as well as the hidden curriculum respectively. In addition to the above it is important to note that in as much as it is normal for classroom teachers to harbour certain expectations about their pupils.
The problem arises when these expectations are communicated to pupils directly or indirectly. They might eventually motivate or demotivate some pupils. Teacher expectations affect the self-esteem and self-concept of the learner positively and negatively. For example if a teacher constantly label a pupil as a bully a pupil can eventually have such a reflection of self and eventually lives in accordance to the label and bullies usually perform badly in their academic subjects.
On the other hand the use of praises and rewards in the classroom and comment such as bright student can affect the pupil positively in academic achievement. Covington supports this by saying that it has been suggested that teacher expectations often do play a role in student classroom achievement.
Symbolic interactionism is relevant to the classroom teacher because it narrows the goals and aims of education to a micro level. From the key tenet of symbolic interactionism such as self- fulfilling prophecy Alderman, postulates that the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy has a conceptual tool for understanding classroom achievement dynamics.
Therefore a classroom teacher will understand that either positive or negative expectations leads to behaviour that causes the expectation to come true. For example in the classroom if a teacher expects a pupil who is not academically gifted to perform poorly and the pupil picks it up, the pupil can even stop attending classes regularly which will eventually lead to poor achievement.
Moreover, Boehlert explains that when teachers consider intelligence as a fixed pupil characteristic, they are more likely to label them as smart or dumb and teach them according to the label.
Bandura also supports this by arguing that self-fulfilling prophecy prone teachers are often in the habit of providing praise to low achievers for success in relatively simple tasks, while withholding blame for failure. Such strategies, though, can have a negative effect on their motivation and self-esteem, since they may be considered by students as an indication that the teacher has little confidence in their abilities and expects little from them.
Hence with evidence from such scholars one can agree beyond reasonable doubt that symbolic interactionism is relevant to the classroom teacher.
Symbolic interactionism has several pedagogical implications that are helpful to the classroom teacher for instance classroom teachers need to develop a positive classroom climate if they avoid forming differential expectations for students based on qualities such as gender, ethnicity, or parents Ritzer says human have capacity for thought which is shaped by interaction, people learn meaning and symbols that them to exercise thought, they argue that people are able to modify their meanings therefore the patterns of action make up groups and society.
Symbolic interactionism is relevant to the classroom teacher as it helps in guiding practices such as streaming in the classroom. Holborn posit that interaction is the action that takes place between individuals.
Hence streaming is a process which involves human interaction and meanings arise hence this symbolic interaction is crucial. Chisaka and Vakalisa found that learners in the low ability group received no special attention from teachers either in the form of additional assistance or remedial teaching that is often alleged by supporters of ability grouping.
Streaming thus creates an inferiority complex on lower streams as pupils perceive themselves as dull coupled by their less privileged homes and most studies show that teachers tend to limit resources such as books to lower ability classes. In addition to the above, streaming at a classroom leads to the construction of unequal educational outcomes, such outcome are best explained by using the symbolic interactionist perspective, especially the day to day interactions in the school and classrooms.
Teacher negative attitudes can contribute to failure of pupils.This scenario is in relation with the symbolic interactionist Keddie in Haralambos and Holborn who argues that teachers modified their methods and the information they transmitted depending on the stream they were teaching. I chose to only reflect back on the obstacles to a paper or article perspective an edited book and date at the top when you have primary education One of these essays is the right to. It concentrates its sociological sense on what is teacher the very moment when people interact.
The words and actions of teachers and other pupils are continually being interpreted and given meanings. On the other hand the use of praises and rewards in the classroom and comment such as bright student can affect the pupil positively in academic achievement. For example in the classroom if a teacher expects a pupil who is not academically gifted to perform poorly and the pupil picks it up, the pupil can even stop attending classes regularly which will eventually lead to poor achievement. A Journey with Symbolic Interaction. Social Sciences Research Journal, 2 1 , Rosenthal, R.
Mind, Self and Society.
Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House. Mind, Self and Society.