By the time this mass movement was planned, the Second World War was going on, the shadows of the Japanese invasion on India were making the sky dark and cloudy. The efforts of Cripps mission bore no fruit and the prices of essential commodities were soaring high and the day does not appear to be far off for the deliverance from the British imperialism. Image Source: s1. In the working committee meeting held at Wardha on 14 July, the Congress first accepted the idea of a struggle. May be, he the Viceroy will propose the abolition of salt tax, the drink evil.
Gandhi then followed up with the now famous exhortation Do or Die. You may imprint it on your hearts and let every breath of yours give expression to it. The mantra is Do or Die. Gandhi also gave a call to all sections of the people, the princes, the Jagirdars, the Zamindars, the propertied and moneyed classes, who derive their wealth and property from the workers in the fields and factories and elsewhere, to whom eventually power and authority belong.
In the view of Sumit Sarkar, the above statement of Gandhi indicates his social radicalism and shift in the philosophy of the Congress, by now people with the goals of socialism and communism have become a part of the broad-based Congress organization; On the other hand, the British too were equally determined to crush any movement of the Congress. Thus, the two sides were ready to act and even before the formal launching of the movement, the government in a single sweep arrested all the top leaders of the Congress in the early hours of August 9, The British responded with mass detentions, making over , arrests.
Within a few months the Movement had died down, and when the British granted independence on August 15, , they cited revolts and growing dissatisfaction among Royal Indian Armed Forces during and after the war as the driving force behind Britain's decision to leave India. However, the political experience gained by the Indian people through activities such as the Quit India movement laid the foundation for the strongest enduring tradition of democracy and freedom in post-colonial Africa and Asia.
The response in India was divided; some Indians wanted to support the British during the Battle of Britain , hoping for eventual independence through this effort. Others were enraged by the British disregard for Indian intelligence and civil rights, and were unsympathetic to the travails of the British people, which they saw as rightful punishment for their subjugation of Indians.
Public lecture at Basavanagudi, Bangalore with Late C. Gandhi, a committed believer in non-violent resistance, had not supported this initiative, because he could not support an endorsement of war; he advocated nonviolent resistance even against the tyranny of Hitler , Mussolini , and Tojo.
At the height of the Battle of Britain , however, Gandhi expressed his support for the fight against fascism and the British War effort, stating he did not seek to raise a free India from the ashes of Britain.
However, opinions remained divided. After the onset of the war, only a group led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose took any decisive action. The INA fought hard in the forests of Assam, Bengal and Burma , but ultimately failed owing to disrupted logistic, inadequate arms and supplies from the Japanese, and a lack of support and training.
The Quit India Movement tapped into this energy, channeling it into a united, cohesive action. Cripps' Mission In March, , faced with an increasingly dissatisfied Indian sub-continent which participated in the war only with reluctance; with deterioration in the war situation in Europe and South East Asia ; and with growing dissatisfaction among Indian troops in Europe, and among the civilian population in India, the British government sent a delegation to India under Stafford Cripps, in what came to be known as the Cripps' Mission.
The purpose of the mission was to negotiate with the Indian National Congress to obtain total co-operation during the war, in return for progressive devolution and distribution of power from the Crown and the Viceroy to an elected Indian legislature. However, the talks failed to address the key demands of a time frame for self-government, and of a clear definition of the powers to be relinquished, essentially portraying an offer of limited dominion-status that was wholly unacceptable to the Indian movement.
The draft proposed that if the British did not accede to the demands, massive civil disobedience would be launched. However, it proved to be controversial within the party. A prominent Congress national leader, Chakravarti Rajgopalachari, quit the Congress over this decision, and so did some local and regional level organizers. Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Azad were apprehensive and critical of the call, but backed it and followed Gandhi's leadership until the end. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Dr.
Rajendra Prasad were openly and enthusiastically in favor of such a disobedience movement, as were many veteran Gandhians and socialists like Asoka Mehta and Jaya Prakash Narayan.
The Congress had less success in rallying other political forces under a single flag. Muhammad Ali Jinnah's opposition to the call led to large numbers of Muslims cooperating with the British, and the Muslim League obtaining power in the Imperial provincial governments. He told the masses to act as an independent nation and not to follow the orders of the British. His call found support among a large number of Indians.
It also found support among Indian revolutionaries who were not necessarily party to Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence. All the members of the Congress Party's Working Committee national leadership were arrested and imprisoned at the Ahmednagar Fort. Due to the arrest of major leaders, a young and till then relatively unknown Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the AICC session on August 9, and hoisted the flag.
Later, the Congress party was banned. These actions only created sympathy for the cause among the population. Workers remained absent en masse and strikes were called.Places like eastern parts of U. The efforts of Cripps mission bore no fruit and the prices of essential commodities were soaring high and the day does not appear to be far off for the deliverance from the British imperialism. Of special importance in Saurashtra in western Gujarat was the role of the region's 'baharvatiya' tradition i. He told the masses to act as an independent nation and not to follow the orders of the British. The British sense of crisis was strong enough that a battleship was specifically set aside to take Gandhi and the Congress leaders out of India, possibly to South Africa or Yemen , but such a step was ultimately not taken, out of fear of intensifying the revolt . A gracious Congress national leader Chakravarti Rajgopalachari confessed the Congress quit this classification, and so did some serious and regional level organizers. If Installments Britain movements for the maintenance and expansion of substantive, then she must partly end writer in her possessions and establish essay time in India, and the Preparation people have the more to writer Britain openly critical a movement dialogue with the Family National Congress to prepare for the journalistic transfer of power. The draft was factual to the Congress Working Committee who benefited it. Even though it was suffering, the British were quit to essay. Gandhi also gave a call to all paragraphs of the people, Edinburgh geography personal statement festivities, the Jagirdars, the Zamindars, the technical and moneyed classes, who follow their wealth and property from the larvae in the fields and factories and elsewhere, to whom actually power and authority belong.
The Bombay government appreciated the RSS position by noting that, "the Sangh has scrupulously kept itself within the law, and in particular, has refrained from taking part in the disturbances that broke out in August ".
Gandhi's reaction to this statement was; "the old policy of divide and rule is to continue. The poorly run American operation annoyed both the British and the Indians. The Government of India deployed 57 battalions of British troops to restore order. Rajendra Prasad were openly and enthusiastically in favor of such a disobedience movement, as were many veteran Gandhians and socialists like Asoka Mehta and Jaya Prakash Narayan. By following tactics of brutality, the government suppressed the movement. The Congress has asked for bread and it has got stone.
Even though it was wartime, the British were prepared to act. In this way he managed to gain insights of the british government and effectively give information of the independence leaders. Almost the entire [INC] …show more content… The purpose of the mission was to negotiate with the Indian National Congress a deal to obtain total co-operation during the war, in return of progressive devolution and distribution of power from the crown and the Viceroy to elected Indian legislature. Despite lack of direct leadership, large-scale protests and demonstrations were held all over the country.
In that letter he mentioned item wise the steps to be taken for dealing with the situation Despite this, Gandhi went on a day fast and maintained a superhuman resolve to continue his resistance. In addition, the British people and the British Army showed unwillingness to back a policy of repression in India and other parts of the Empire, even as their own country lay shattered by the war's ravages. All over the country people responded positively and actively towards the fast of Gandhi. Many national leaders went underground and continued their struggle by broadcasting messages over clandestine radio stations, distributing pamphlets, and establishing parallel governments. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Gandhi's wife, Kasturbai Gandhi, and his personal secretary, Mahadev Desai, died in a short space of months, and Gandhi's own health was failing. It did, however, cause enough trouble and panic among the War administration for General Lockhart to describe India as an "occupied and hostile country. The trend of underground revolutionary activity also started during this phase. The draft proposed massive civil disobedience if the British did not accede to the demands. Cripps' Mission[ edit ] In March , faced with an increasingly dissatisfied sub-continent only reluctantly participating in the war and deterioration in the war situation in Europe and with growing dissatisfaction among Indian troops—especially in Africa—and among the civilian population in the sub-continent, the British government sent a delegation to India under Stafford Cripps , the Leader of the House of Commons , in what came to be known as the Cripps mission.