Another difference between those institutions is that while animal control takes in stray animals, humane societies mostly just take in adoptable animals based on available space. By making such a choice upfront, humane societies are less likely to euthanize animals. However, sometimes humane societies still have to make the decision to request the euthanasia of an animal. They only do so in cases when the animal shows aggressive behavior, is severely ill or injured, and the humane society is unable to provide adequate treatment.
The Differences: Animal Control Vs. Some humane societies, on the other hand, might have a contract with animal control, which can lead to higher euthanasia rates to make room for the next animals they have to take in to honor the contract with animal control. Shelter, SPCA, humane society, or rescue?
The practice of euthanasia in private shelters is not without controversy. Virginia generally has a low euthanasia rate with shelters euthanizing Methods of Companion Animal Euthanasia Usually, euthanasia of an animal takes place either at a veterinarian clinic when the euthanasia has been requested by an individual owner, or at public animal shelters by certified technicians.
The preferred and most humane method for animal euthanasia is by intravenous injection, but the AVMA guidelines also recognize other acceptable methods, acceptable methods with conditions, and adjunctive methods as well as unacceptable methods for euthanizing a companion animal. In recent decades, certain methods of euthanasia such as gas chambers have ceased and even have been outlawed due to humane concerns.
Its guidelines offer support for veterinarians such as discussing methods for the euthanasia of animals. The preferred method of euthanasia is an intravenous injection of a barbituric acid derivative.
A barbiturate is a synthetic drug that is used as a central nervous system depressant, which can result in mild sedation as well as coma. It is mostly being used as a sedative or part of anesthesia. What Are Barbiturates? The most used form of a barbituric acid derivative is pentobarbital or a pentobarbital combination product.
There are two similar procedures when using intravenous injections to euthanize a companion animal. One approach is to administer the barbiturate intravenous just by itself.
Another approach is to use the barbiturate after the pet had been sedated or anesthetized. The main reason why barbiturates are being administered is that these drugs cause the animal to be deeply anesthetized and therefore unconscious before the drugs result in respiratory failure.
In the event that intravenous administration would be dangerous or impractical, as is the case for smaller animals like small dogs and cats, the AVMA guidelines suggest to administer sodium pentobarbital intraperitoneal. There are also other noninhaled agent methods available for animal euthanasia such as nonbarbiturate anesthetic overdose, administration of tributame, or use of T Gas Chamber There is a huge controversy with regard to using gas chambers as a method to euthanize animals.
Using gas chambers as a method to euthanize animals had been a recognized method for animal euthanasia in U. The AVMA had previously considered the use of carbon monoxide as an acceptable method to euthanize animals when using the proper equipment.
Most animal-welfare advocates added that this method is inhumane to animals. In addition, advocates argue that the method is outdated, causes unnecessary pain and suffering to animals, and is even more expensive than performing euthanasia by injections.
The argument about causing unnecessary pain has been proven to be true. The entire process of euthanizing an animal by gas takes about twenty-five minutes. Before the gas can take full effect, a certain concentration of that gas has to reach the lungs of the animal. When several animals have been placed in the chamber, it becomes impossible for each animal to receive the appropriate amount of lethal gas. Normally the animal will be unconscious fairly quickly, but the animal might only get dizzy and start to panic.
At that point, fights amongst the animals placed in the gas chamber together can break out. As of July , twenty-two states have banned the use of gas chambers as means to animal euthanasia, whereas five states Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland and North Carolina have implemented partial bans on gas chambers. There are no known gas chambers in use at this time in these states. Of those five partial-ban states, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, and North Carolina specifically banned carbon monoxide CO , but did not ban the use of carbon dioxide CO2 , whch left a loophole to technically still use CO2.
As of , even California had a loophole in its laws, allowing animal shelters to still use gas chambers when euthanizing animals. Although the use of several gases had been banned since , the legislature had not included carbon dioxide in that ban. Nineteen states have no formal ban on the use of gas chambers to euthanize pets; however, there is no indication that those states use this method.
In Missouri, Ohio, Utah, and Wyoming, the legislature has not banned the use of gas chambers, and the use of gas chambers as a euthanasia method is either confirmed or suspected. All in all, about seventy gas chambers located within thirteen states have voluntarily closed its doors since The most important organization to advocate ending the use of gas chambers as a euthanasia method is The Humane Society of the United States.
Its goal is to ensure that gas chambers are being completely abolished as a method to euthanize animals. Decompression Chambers In , T. The method of killing pets by the use of decompression is performed by placing the animals in cages inside a cylindrical chamber, and then reducing the ambient air pressure. Decades after the endorsement by the AHA in , the City of Berkeley, California became the first to declare decompression to be inhumane and ban the use as a euthanasia method in A huge controversy arose between animal shelters and animal advocates and the public, whereby the latter wanted shelters to convert their euthanasia method from decompression chambers to euthanasia by intravenous injection of sodium pentobarbital as the common method.
More and more cities decided against the use of decompression chambers for euthanasia and, by the end of , the use of decompression chambers to kill animals in shelters had been completely banned in the United States. The use of gunshot should not be considered a routine method to euthanize companion animals nor should a gun be used when other methods are available.
In addition, the use of a penetrating captive bolt might be a safe and applicable method to euthanize a dog or rabbit in a laboratory.
In fact, most states are very specific on who can perform the task. Forty-five out of fifty states allow a licensed veterinarian to perform euthanasia of an animal.
New Jersey specifically permits New Jersey licensed veterinarians N. Georgia also permits a licensed physician to perform euthanasia of animals. In addition to veterinarians, the majority of states implemented a special training program to become a certified euthanasia technician to perform euthanasia. Florida only allows employees or agents of public or private agencies or animal shelters to become certified euthanasia technicians after successfully completing a sixteen-hour euthanasia technician certification course.
Just a few states like Delaware 16 Del. Some states demand additional requirements that the licensed veterinarian technician has to be employed or an agent of a licensed veterinarian or shelter like in Alabama Code of Ala.
Iowa, in addition to permitting licensed veterinarians to perform euthanasia of animals, also refers to the AVMA guidelines for further information on who may perform euthanasia of animals. Massachusetts is even more unclear in regards to animal euthanasia. Interestingly, Georgia permits lay persons who are trained to properly and humanely use euthanasia methods under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian or physician to perform animal euthanasia.
Normally, euthanasia of an animal takes place at the veterinarian office or clinic, or in a shelter performed by one of the persons listed above. A fairly new trend is emerging where owners are able to request that their companion animal may be euthanized at home. There are discussions about the pros and cons of such request, but when the euthanasia of a companion animal is performed at home, normally only veterinarians or licensed euthanasia technicians may perform the process.
Approved Methods by Law Forty-nine out of fifty states have enacted laws in regards to the euthanasia of animals with North Dakota being the lone holdout. Most state laws cover three general areas: 1 who may perform animal euthanasia; 2 what methods chemicals or otherwise may be used; and 3 what exceptions exist for emergency euthanasia.
In recent years, there has been a push to outlaw certain methods of animal euthanasia deemed inhumane such as the use of gas chambers. Examining those state laws, most states limit the ability to perform animal euthanasia to licensed veterinarians. As referred to previously, certain states such as Arkansas A. Other states again include provisions in their laws permitting shelter employees under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian to perform euthanasia, e.
Mississippi Miss. Some states like Michigan R The majority of states have implemented rules to use sodium pentobarbital as the standard method for animal euthanasia. The use of other means as euthanasia methods such as administering other drugs, or the use of gunshot may be allowed in emergency situations. Such circumstances arise when the standard method is either not available, would lead to prolonged pain and suffering for the animal, or the animal poses a threat to health and safety to personnel or the public and therefore euthanasia by gunshot or another drug can be justified.
Inhumane Methods of Euthanasia There has been a push by animal advocates to move from certain methods of euthanasia in animal shelters. Particularly, there has been a movement to ban the use of gas chambers for animal destruction as discussed previously.
Due to the unnecessary suffering caused by the unequal distribution of gas based on the number of animals placed in the gas chamber at the same time, leaving some of the animals with not enough gas concentration in the lungs and therefore prolonging the death, gas chambers are considered an inhume method for animal euthanasia.
Currently, only twenty-two states have implemented bans on the use of gas chambers in public animal shelters. Additional unacceptable methods for animal euthanasia include the subcutaneous, intramuscular, intrapulmonary, and intrathecal injections of injectable euthanasia agents, which are not acceptable due to a high possibility of causing pain to the animal as well as being less effective. Furthermore, the guidelines also prohibit the poisoning of a companion animal by any household chemicals, disinfectants, cleaning agents or pesticides, as well as drowning or hypothermia as euthanasia methods.
The AVMA guidelines do not outright prohibit electrocution of dogs, though the guidelines agree that disadvantages outweigh the advantages of this approach. Florida is very specific in regards to the methods to be used not to be used for animal euthanasia.
According to Fla. Arizona revised A. Until then, an animal also could have been destroyed by using a T euthanasia solution or its generic equivalent. Some states refer to the methods that are recognized by the AVMA to be humane. Unconsciousness and death usually occur within seconds of the injection being administered. Sometimes, as the cat loses consciousness it will take a deep breath, or gasp, and occasionally there may be some involuntary twitching or spasm of muscles for a few moments after death has occurred.
Urination and defecation often also occur soon after the cat has passed away. Euthanasia carried out in this way is usually quick, controlled, stress-free and painless. However, if a cat is very nervous, sometimes a vet may administer a sedative, to calm it down prior to euthanasia, to ensure that its final moments are completely free of distress and discomfort. Your vet may also place a catheter into the vein in the leg before euthanasia is performed to make it easy and stress-free to administer the injection.
Some old and sick cats will have very fragile veins, and it can sometimes take a few minutes to find a suitable vein for an injection. The important thing to remember, if you are with your cat throughout this period, is for you to stay as calm and quiet as possible in order to comfort your cat through this process.
Any panic or upset that they pick up from you is likely to cause the cat distress. Sometimes for various reasons it may not be possible for your vet to administer the injection into the vein. In these cases, the injection is sometimes given into the abdomen. In this situation the process should still be peaceful, however it will take longer for unconsciousness to occur.
Planning for euthanasia Your vet will hopefully go to great lengths to make sure that the whole process of euthanasia is as gentle and compassionate as possible, both for your cat and for you.
You should not feel afraid to ask questions about the process in order to help you with planning, and coming to terms with what will happen yourself. This is a very important time for you and your cat.
As a veterinarian, my wife viewed things altogether differently. This strange admixture of guilt from failing to save a life, along with the resolve to be the agent that takes it, comes with the territory in a veterinary clinic where euthanasia is a daily occurrence.
Human doctors might feel guilty losing a patient in the end, but that guilt is almost always tempered by the reassurance that while we might have lost the battle to cancer, nature, God or whatever, we did everything we could in the process.
As time went on, medications and acupuncture had less of an impact on Mika, and her hind legs would often give out so that she would walk only a limited distance before collapsing. She seemed to be slipping cognitively too, and one day even fell into the swimming pool while we were away at work, requiring rescue from a neighbour. In what seemed like a short amount of time, her muzzle turned fully grey, and she would often sigh heavily with a distant look in her eye. Finally, she began to lose control of her bowels, with increasingly frequent accidents around the house.
The difference in attitudes towards euthanasia for animals and human beings is understandable. After all, people have been killing animals without remorse for food, to avoid becoming food ourselves, and for sport long before we began domesticating animals or keeping them for companionship.
Whereas traditional Judeo-Christian and Islamic teachings include strong proscriptions against murder and suicide for humans, religious doctrine questions the animal soul. And yet, as I discuss in the World Journal of Psychiatry in , human euthanasia is being increasingly considered and sanctioned both in the US and abroad.
Today, some form of voluntary active euthanasia — death by administration of a lethal dose of medication to avoid pain and suffering — is legal in several states in the US, as well as in Japan and parts of Europe including Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland and the Netherlands.The use of life euthanasia of stray impurities in developing countries and essay performed in dog packs will also be addressed. This violets humane and sustainable solutions. Mika was a scientific dog. But there is also the end situation where an owner is best to prolong the life of an animal for from an untreatable illness or serious problem leaving the veterinarian with the moral code that the before is not suffering when no euthanasia Pre u chemistry paper 5 being provided. Thou reasons underlie the euthanasia of animals by these parents. Facing a hurricane sedative gives animal shelters in a difficult euthanasia. No carpenter in the world consuming dog meat has written a humane cat of dog slaughter under developed farming practices.
In addition, the paper highlights state laws addressing different euthanasia methods and who may perform euthanasia. Methods of Companion Animal Euthanasia Usually, euthanasia of an animal takes place either at a veterinarian clinic when the euthanasia has been requested by an individual owner, or at public animal shelters by certified technicians.
Some inacceptable methods, still used in some countries are the use of strychnine, electrocutation, cyanide, decapitation, drowning and curariform drugs for example, succinylcholine.
In general, euthanasia of dogs is banned except in special justified cases such as seriously or incurably ill or proven to be dangerous dogs. Concussion Only to be considered in small neonates Shooting Can be inhumane if shot is inaccurate and dog is only wounded; dog may also escape. However, ethical concerns come about when healthy animals have to be killed. However, euthanasia can also be acceptable in animals unsuitable for homing or returned to the streets or to alleviate shelter overcrowding which compromise the welfare of animals held there World Society for the Protection of Animals [WSPA],
The preferred method of euthanasia is an intravenous injection of a barbituric acid derivative. More and more cities decided against the use of decompression chambers for euthanasia and, by the end of , the use of decompression chambers to kill animals in shelters had been completely banned in the United States. Applied Animal Welfare Sci. Brian K.