Scripture is a key source for ethical analysis, including bio-ethics, and is used in conjunction with tradition, science and philosophical ethics. There are variations across the Anglican Communion on a number of ethical issues. On the two issues under study here, however, there is considerable agreement. A study guide that was prepared in for a Canadian task force on end of life issues does not discuss the criteria for death in any detail, but does define it.
Neither specifically address the issues centering on the criteria for determining death, but in the section on organ donation, it is clear that the task force agreed with medical criteria for determining death and strongly advised its members to consider living and cadaver organ donation [ 57 ].
Similar definitions appear in materials that are being distributed for the next end-of-life task force of death and dying that was formed in October, Proposed and actual changes to laws regarding physician assisted suicide are among societal factors leading to the need for a new task force. To prepare for the new examinations of the issues, Anglican ethicist, Eric Beresford, has prepared materials for the group that include papers on both sides of the issue and response forms participants are to answer after deliberating over the issues.
Withdrawal of mechanical support: Anglican While clear definitions of death are hard to find in official publications, support for the withdrawal of mechanical support is clearly stated in both study guides and publications. Artificial hydration and nutrition are included in the medical interventions which can be withdrawn. Acknowledging that withdrawing treatment may be an agonizing decision for families, various Anglican writings uphold the right of the individual and family to make decisions in these cases and the Church provides resources to their congregants to support those making difficult moral decisions about the use of medical treatment [ 57 ].
Presbyterian churches - USA Presbyterian beliefs and practices are rooted in the theology of John Calvin — who saw understanding Scripture as central to Christian life. In this tradition, individuals are responsible for cultivating their own spirituality through study and reflection.
The Church supports this by providing resources to help individuals understand and assess complex moral situations. Members may find statements issued by the governing body, the General Assembly, helpful, but they are not binding. It contains reflections on scripture relating to death and dying, articles from philosophical ethics, and an extensive bibliography. Withdrawal of mechanical support: Presbyterian In the General Assembly produced a position paper dealing specifically with questions about withdrawing support.
It is not the goal of medicine simply to prevent death. Thus, the goal of medical care to relieve suffering remains clear even when healing or restoration is not a realistic hope. National association of Evangelicals in America Roughly fifty denominations and fellowships belong to this association.
They include a number Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, and Pentecostal expressions that have not joined with the national associations. The Association has created a brief statement dealing with determining death. It notes: The National Association of evangelicals believes that in cases where extensive brain injury has occurred and there is clear medical indication that the patient has suffered brain death permanent unconscious state , no medical treatment can reverse the process [ 60 ].
In the further discussion, however, it makes the following statement: Brain death is not the equivalent of a coma. A patient might awaken from a coma, but not from brain death. Removal of any extraordinary life-support system at this time is morally appropriate and allows the dying process to proceed [ 60 ].
Islam traces its roots to Abraham and accepts that Moses and Jesus were prophets. However Muhammad is understood to be the final prophet and the Qur'an the final revelation of God.
That Islam is rooted in both Jewish and Christian thought and influenced by Greek philosophy is clear from these competing and often unclear views. These Islamic texts spend considerable time talking about death and afterlife, but not the criteria for declaring death. If texts are silent on an issue, Islamic jurists create fiqh, legal interpretations, using principles such as the dominant probability of good or harm resulting from an act and potential societal benefit to make ethical decisions [ 61 ], p.
As in Judaism, the interpretations of text and rational arguments can vary widely since there is no one person who is vested with interpretation for the group as a whole. On occasion, when national councils are tasked with determining the morality of a contemporary moral issue, those who dissent will simply convene a new council and produce an alternative ruling. Before the advent of mechanical life support measures, there was no disagreement between physicians and clerics about the definition of death.
Hence, Muslim physicians have served a key role in applying tradition to developing medical situations. When physicians wrote in support of brain death, they relied on two Islamic traditions. The first was as an ancient ruling that if the king can no longer use his mind, a new king can be crowned. Since only a deceased king can be replaced, this ruling is used to justify applying brain death criteria to a potential donor.
The second, more common discussion, looks to rules hunters use to determine whether an animal is dying or has died. If an animal is to be consumed by humans, Islam requires that it be slaughtered in a specific, ritual way. If a hunted animal dies before the ritual slaughter then its meat is not halal and cannot be eaten. This idea is then applied to the determination of death in humans to argue that brain death is an appropriate vehicle for assessing that death has occurred [ 62 ], p.
While there is widespread support from Islamic physicians for using neurological criteria, religious scholars overwhelmingly dispute it. Most Muslim jurists, however, believe this cannot be ascertained medically and as a result find cardio-respiratory death the only suitable determination [ 62 ], p. For the most part, however, opinions throughout the Muslim world fall into the three categories: those who oppose neurological criteria, those who accept them, and a third group that technically accepts neurological criteria while acting in a way that belies acceptance of those criteria.
A summary of recent judicial decisions exemplifies the varied views. In Amman , Islamic scholars and medical experts attempted to come to agreement on the criteria for determining death. No resolution was reached during the first session.
It has provisions for both brain death and cardio-respiratory death satisfying both the clerics and scientists. A person is pronounced legally dead and consequently, all dispositions of the Islamic law in case of death apply if one of the two following conditions has been established: There is total cessation of cardiac and respiratory functions, and doctors have ruled that such cessation is irreversible. There is total cessation of all cerebral functions and experienced specialized doctors have ruled that such cessation is irreversible and the brain has started to disintegrate [ 63 ].
In Kuwait, two councils on jurisprudence produced opposite conclusions within a short period of time — one arguing that the presence of a heartbeat always indicated that the patient was alive, one claiming neurological criteria trumped the beating heart [ 5 ], p.
The Ayatollah Khomeini, spiritual leader of Iran, pronounced as morally acceptable the use of brain death criteria only to have that rejected by Iranian Islamic jurists [ 62 ], p. Perhaps the most conflicted ruling comes from the Islamic Juridical Council who determined that an individual who met the neurological criteria for brain death was biologically dead but only became legally dead when artificially supported breathing breathing stops completely [ 62 ], p In the early stages of the debate, Islamic jurists deferred to physicians and generally did not present arguments based on Islamic understanding of either the nature of the human being or on criteria used to determine that death had occurred.
What appears to be the case in Islam is similar to Christianity, namely there is only partial understanding of the actual criteria. After an explanation of the criteria used, seven emended their view to indicate the appropriateness of brain death [ 5 ], p.
In this situation, when some individuals were better informed on the details of brain death and its differentiation from conditions such as persistent vegetative state, they were more inclined to accept neurological criteria. Withdrawal of mechanical support before death has been determined: Islam Though the issue of how to determine if someone has died remains contentious, there is little disagreement on withdrawing futile treatment. The physician and family are charged with making this decision.
Factors that can be considered include the benefit to be derived from the treatment, the burden to the patient and the burden to the family.
Although each form has unique aspects, these traditions share features that cut across regional boundaries. These include an animistic world view, concern for universal harmony, centeredness in nature and place, and right practice. Animistic traditions have several features that have bearing on the discussion at hand. In Animism, humans have both a physical and a spiritual component. At death, the spirit, often called an ancestor, will both abide in another world and be present in this one.
Respect for those who have died is a hallmark of these traditions; some include ancestor worship. Seeing themselves as part of a whole living world, indigenous traditions often value the land and place.
Sacred rocks, mountains and religious artifacts made of clay and stone connect people to the land. The correct enactment of life stage rituals protects the entire community and keeps evil forces at bay. Disruption to harmony can arise from an individual breaking a taboo—whether intended or not—or from improper ritual performance.
The orientation and goal of moral reasoning in these traditions is maintaining harmony. Stories about the ancestors and listening to their voices and those of spirit beings and animal helpers provide the moral framework for decision-making [ 65 ]. Often, the entire community involves itself in determining how to act. At other times, community elders will decide for the group.
Each moral decision is seen to affect the entire community. Failure to follow the proper procedures in caring for the dead, for example, will bring harm to the deceased and the community.
For most indigenous traditions including those in China and Japan which are discussed below, mentioning death is taboo; a common view is that talking about death will invite it [ 66 ]. Most indigenous groups share a focus on the taboos, proper rituals and the location of death, which should be outdoors, on the ground or in a specially constructed hut. Indigenous people around the world have resisted medical intervention in death.
Second, the desire to die in a specific location--at home or outdoors, for example, means that hospital deaths are often avoided. For some groups, the place where death occurs becomes dangerous and community members will avoid it for varying periods of time making hospital deaths particularly problematic. Third is the view that medical intervention at death should be limited [ 69 ], p.
Withdrawal of mechanical support before death has been determined: Indigenous traditions Attitudes toward withdrawing mechanical support in China and Japan are discussed below. In the Americas and Australia there is information from a variety of indigenous expressions [ 70 ] that does point to reluctance to accept medical treatment at the end of life and a desire to die in the home area [ 71 ]. These two factors can be related especially when the reservation is located at some distance from medical facilities; dying in hospital would remove the individual from their community support system.
In addition, a typical, though not universal view, is that individuals should die in the land where they are born, otherwise their spirit will wander aimlessly [ 72 ], p.
Because their spirit will be lost, yeah, looking for home. Many Eastern religions are layered onto pre-existing, indigenous traditions. Hinduism Hinduism is the name Persians and Greeks gave to the grouping of religions found in India and presents itself in varieties that have regional and cultural differences.
In general, Hinduism believes the current body is not the true self—rather the body is like a coat that is shed when it wears out. Underneath the coat is the self, Atman, which moves from life to life. The actions you do in this life, Karma, will determine the form that your body takes in the next life. The ultimate goal is to gain permanent release, moksha, from the cycle of death and rebirth and experience oneness with Brahman God.
Intermediate goals vary from group to group but many include possible existence in paradise which, though temporary, will be blissful, or birth in a better life station which will increase the chance of gaining permanent release. Hinduism characterizes itself as a way of life rather than as one religious tradition and centers on practice, specifically doing what is right, or dharma. To assess the correct action in a moral issue, Hindus will consult scriptures, reflect on tradition, follow examples of gurus, and consider their duty as it applies to their gender, caste and life station.
The overriding issue that determines what action to follow is the goal of moksha, liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth [ 73 ], p. When dealing with issues regarding death, however, many Hindus are uncomfortable with medical determinations of death [ 74 ]. Although India passed a resolution in that included provisions accepting brain death criteria, and several sources state that Hindus accept neurological criteria [ 75 ], internet and library searches turn up few discussions of the issues surrounding medical definitions of death.
Instead discourse on death typically focuses on what constitutes a good or bad death in religious and next life terms. A good death, essential for both the dying person and the family, occurs when the individual is properly prepared to die, the astrological signs are right, and the proper rituals are performed.
Experiencing either liberation or a good rebirth requires a good death. A bad death will have permanent ramifications in subsequent lives; the deceased may be reborn in a lesser station or wander unable to be reborn but not liberated.
There will be unfortunate consequences for the family—e. Sudden death, death with excessive bodily fluids, or a death accompanied by poorly performed rituals constitutes bad death [ 76 ], p.
The place of death also matters. Dying in the holy city of Benares near the Ganges is preferred, but if that is not possible individuals will be lowered to the floor to avoid the area between the ceiling and floor which is filled with turmoil.
The focus of the individual must remain on a religious thought [ 77 ], p. Some people chant the name of their deity, others chant passages from the Bhagavad Gita, and family members place a light near the head of their loved one. Interrupting this process can have consequences that will continue eternally since it will affect all future births. Within indigenous communities, religion, social behavior, art, and music are so intertwined that their religion is a significant part of their culture and virtually inseparable from it.
These religions originally developed and thrived in isolation from one another and are some of the earliest examples of religious practice and belief Others try to achieve liberation through intense meditation. Traditional Hindus are expected to pass through the four stages known as ashramas. During these stages many Hindus perform rituals to achieve feeling of devotion, and closeness to God. The rituals can go anywhere from reciting mantras to doing charitable work. A devout Hindu is expected to perform prayer every single day.
Many rituals in Hinduism revolve around sacrifice to please the gods; this can be traced all the way back to the Vedic period Along with Christianity, Islam and Sikhism; Buddhism and Hinduism are among the top five religions worldwide. Buddhism is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha , who was born a Hindu. He attained Nirvana at thirty six years of age and was no longer a Hindu follower. Hinduism's is believed to of begun around BCE, a religion combined of few other religions combined with many laws and ways of living Hinduism is one of the oldest living religions in the world.
The religion is over 4, years old. Like most religions in the universe, Hinduism is unique in its own way. Hinduism is unique because it did not start off as a religion. Hinduism was actually a culture for people in India and then later turned into a religion Hinduism on Fun Facts Christianity did not come to us fully formed, it developed out of turmoil. Everything was disputed; believers has different views, groups and practices during the 2nd and 3rd century.
All beliefs go back to the same Christianity that emerged victorious to decide what was to be accepted or rejected. Over time Christianity changed and separated from Judaism to form its own infrastructure It has about 14 million to 16 million members following today. It is the 12th largest religion in the world.
It was founded by a man named Abraham back around B. The Jew study a book called the Torah. It has the first 5 books of the Old Testament in it and commandments in it. Today, less than of them are used. The Jews have different types of Jew, first there is the Orthodox. They are very old fashion and take the Jewish religion very serious A number of methods are used to study religions.
The most common is the historical comparative method in which a certain faith's history and traditions are deliberated. This method focuses on orthodoxy, meaning "correct thought. This method, unlike the historical comparative method, is centered on orthopraxy, or "correct practice.
Other than the obvious, that Catholicism, Christianity and Protestantism believe that there are no more prophets, and Mormons believe that there are still prophets walking the earth today, differences between the faiths range in varying ways Throughout history religion has served as an answer to the questions that man could not resolve.
Religion is currently defined as an organized system of beliefs and practices revolving around, or leading to, a transcendent spiritual experience There are a number of religions in the world today with the five largest in terms of population representation being: - Confucianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity and Islam This paper will look at the basics of gender inequality within marriage through three different religions: Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
Looking at the basics of gender inequality one can ascertain that it is a learned behavior beginning at the developmental stages of childhood. The big three religions in the world were founded well over years ago, and were born in a much different time period in which people live in today.
New World Religions are the missing puzzle piece for some who do not feel at home with the worlds older Religions. New world religions have some benefits as they provide religious practices based out of the modern world. By using science and the study of nature, new world religions help some find religions who do not feel at home with the worlds older religions Our history is what defines us as humans, communities, and nations.
Yet, more often than not people wish to forget the past. We fear that if we do not learn from our mistakes that history will repeat itself. However, there still are those that take delight in their background. The Jewish people are among the latter. It was shown even more so through our visit to the local Central Synagogue Is it one of the up and coming styles in mixed martial arts. No, Kongfuzi is better known in the Chinese culture as Confucius.
So who is Confucius. Confucius is the person who is responsible for Confucianism, which is was and still is very important to the Chinese culture. Confucius was technically the founder of Confucianism; because he is the person who is responsible for Confucianism through his morals and values throughout his life They worship in churches and their leaders are called ministers and priest. Their holy book is called the bible and contains an old and a new testament.
Their holy holidays are Easter and Christmas. Another holiday is lent, where they celebrate the resurrection of Jesus on the third day. The people who killed Jesus was the Caiaphas, he was trying to fulfill the Hebrew bible prophecy about messiahs arrival.
He was greeted by an angry crowd. The Caiaphas raided his temple with his army. The Caiaphas was a politician and one of the wicked men in Jerusalem Both books encourage belief in God and teach patience and honesty. They both also forbid lying and stealing and believe in some type of Heaven and Hell.
So, if they have so much in common, why is there so much conflict between the two. This question is the exact reason why I chose to take World Religion. I thought it was important to learn and understand the beliefs of other religions so that I could better understand the issues affecting our society today I was raised Jewish, but I have never been very religious, although my parents sent me to Hebrew school, and forced me to go to temple. Over the years that I have spent being taught Hebrew, and reading the stories from The Old Testament, I have come to realize that that is all they really are, stories Buddhism was founded by the historical Buddha Gautama, in the 5th century B.
Buddhism begun around 2, years ago by a young prince named Siddharthe Gautama. Living as a prince, he went on a religious endeavor seeking to improve human suffering. Different religious groups imagine the world differently, and that affects how they respond to contemporary concerns. The academic discipline of religious studies does not train students to be Catholics or Buddhists or Jews any more than political science trains students to be Democrats or Republicans.
We train our students to read closely, think deeply, write cogently and, above all, analyze carefully the important -- and sometimes decisive -- role that religion plays in the lives of cultural actors across the globe. If the only people who understand Christianity are Christian, or Islam are Muslims, or Hinduism are Hindus, we are condemned to a world of misunderstanding, conflict and sectarianism.
If we cede understanding of religious ideas to religious individuals, we lose the capacity to comprehend the motivations behind the thoughts and actions of anyone beyond our own religious tradition. Faith communities will always have a strong desire and need to train members and leaders for service in their own religious communities; that enterprise is a permanent fixture in traditional religious practice.
However, for those aspiring to leadership in the 21st century, knowledge of the religions of the world from a nonconfessional perspective is not a luxury but a necessity. Study of the variety of religious traditions around the world makes it abundantly clear that different people operate under different assumptions about the way the world works.
To understand their actions, we must also understand their motivations. That distinction between the discipline of religious studies and training within religious communities is often lost when considering the topic of religion in an educational setting.Members may find statements issued by the governing body, the General Assembly, helpful, but they are not binding. The arrangement of the house of worship, and the gardens conveyed the idea of unity. Roman Catholicism, for example, believes that death happens when the soul leaves the body; Buddhism sees death occurring at a point after the invisible, subtle consciousness leaves the physical body.
While those less philosophically inclined, chose to worship fortune, or lean towards the more emotional religions of Oriental origin. The site collects but does not analyze statistical information of over different groups and has statistical information from almost 44, sources. Every area of the world has some kind of religion or belief system.
The Conservative tradition shares the perspective that medical care is obligatory up to a point, but extends the period of time in which treatment may be withheld or withdrawn—up to a year or more. Religion Resources on the Web: About one hundred briefly annotated links to major sites on a variety of religious topics and traditions. Religion has been around for centuries, there is not an exact number of how many religions exist, but it is closely estimated to be over 4, Failure to follow the proper procedures in caring for the dead, for example, will bring harm to the deceased and the community.
Members may find statements issued by the governing body, the General Assembly, helpful, but they are not binding. This paper seeks to explore how religious perspectives define death and determine that it has occurred with application to end of life care and donation of organs and tissues after death. Sudden death, death with excessive bodily fluids, or a death accompanied by poorly performed rituals constitutes bad death [ 76 ], p. There are about five billion people who believe in a higher power Tiemann Whether you attend a cathedral, a synagogue, or a mosque, habitually, intermittently, or abstain entirely, you simply cannot escape religion.
In , The Israeli Chief Rabbinical Council drew on these and other interpretations to affirm the use of neurological criteria and noted five prerequisites for establishing the state of brain death: A. With the Eastern Religions in particular, religion permeates every area of life.
What are some of the questions religion seek to answer?
Administering a drug that will provide pain relief to a terminally ill patient the good but will also depress the respiratory system and hasten death the evil exemplifies double effect.
Being aware of human suffering the prince was determined to penetrate the root cause of frustration and pain and discover a more deeply satisfying way of life. A full decade before the Harvard Committee convened, Pius XII, leader of the Church from —, addressed the International Congress of Anesthesiologists to answer questions raised by one of their members. New world religions have some benefits as they provide religious practices based out of the modern world. Reform Judaism is the most liberal of the three, it champions individual autonomy and believes that Judaism must adapt to the contemporary situation.
It may be even better for it makes us transcend the scholastic certainty of a clear-cut definition of death and introduces us to the uncertainty of a risky decision. He reined this region from after being declared the spiritual leader in The big three religions in the world were founded well over years ago, and were born in a much different time period in which people live in today.
Each regional Church has its own governing body which results in differences across the tradition in a variety of areas including some medical ethical issues.
Indigenous, tribal practices are performed to this day in remote regions of the world. Their "Religious Backgrounder" section provides reliable and sometimes extensive information about religions of particular current interest. He succeeds by using intelligible explanations, arguments, and examples to skeptically understand how man is shaped by religion. At death, the spirit, often called an ancestor, will both abide in another world and be present in this one.