How To Present A Counter Claim In An Essay

Examination 11.11.2019
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Presenting an essay argument One of the key essays you should have as you write the essay is to ensure that you counter an objective argument. This means counter the counterclaims to your arguments, other perspectives, and the implications of what you are saying.

Summarizing and paraphrasing activities

Aggregate measures of social capital lack both reliability and validity and are inconsistent with theory. The persuasive essay follows the basic essay format as displayed in the example. State both the claim your position and the counter claim the opposing position. Start building a strong case by refuting or disproving the opposing position. Use one paragraph to state each counter point, following your statement with related evidence that refutes the point. Present your case in the second section of the body. Use one paragraph to state each of your points, following your statement with the evidence that proves or supports your point. Which should be more developed: my knowledge claim, or my counterclaim? Your knowledge claim should be more extensive than your counterclaim, and you should try to make it clear in your essay within the mini-conclusion to that section, and within the main conclusion which is your point of view ie the claim, rather than the counterclaim. In other words, you should go into more depth for your claim, and support it with a little more evidence. Also, towards the end of the first paragraph, and throughout the second paragraph, the writer spends time clearly attacking these opposing views. He helps the reader feel like the opposing views might SEEM good on the surface, but they are indeed not good enough. He helps the reader see this with hints like "One of the biggest dangers of school choice is This paragraph particularly draws in any hostile readers; the writer cunningly draws them in by complimenting their views when he says "Activists within the school choice movement can be applauded for seeking to improve public education," but he immediately points out the flaws, saying that " the changes they propose would in fact seriously damage public education as a whole. Alternatives exist. In other words, you make your main argument. In other words, provide the reader with facts that prove your argument is strong. As a result, the underlying assumption that you build your argument on is grounded in reason. Don't avoid arguments that oppose your own. Instead, become familiar with the opposing perspective. If you respond to counterclaims, you appear unbiased and, therefore, you earn the respect of your readers. You may even want to include several counterclaims to show that you have thoroughly researched the topic. If you present data to your audience without explaining how it supports your thesis, your readers may not make a connection between the two, or they may draw different conclusions. Then you state the case against yourself as briefly but as clearly and forcefully as you can, pointing to evidence where possible. An obviously feeble or perfunctory counterargument does more harm than good. In reasoning about the proposed counterargument, you may refute it, showing why it is mistaken—an apparent but not real problem; acknowledge its validity or plausibility, but suggest why on balance it's relatively less important or less likely than what you propose, and thus doesn't overturn it; concede its force and complicate your idea accordingly—restate your thesis in a more exact, qualified, or nuanced way that takes account of the objection, or start a new section in which you consider your topic in light of it.

What are counterclaims, and why do we claim to include them in the essay. This also makes plenty of sense if you are trying to build a solid argument.

Debates, discussion, and arguments are about presenting different opinions, and supporting them with evidence.

Not every objection is worth entertaining, of course, and you shouldn't include one just to include one. But some imagining of other views, or of resistance to one's own, occurs in most good essays. And instructors are glad to encounter counterargument in student papers, even if they haven't specifically asked for it. The Turn Against Counterargument in an essay has two stages: you turn against your argument to challenge it and then you turn back to re-affirm it. You first imagine a skeptical reader, or cite an actual source, who might resist your argument by pointing out a problem with your demonstration, e. However, there are many who disagree with these contentions. To Dershowitz--a self proclaimed civil libertarian--this tradeoff would be well worth it. According to Dershowitz, the national ID card would be only a little more intrusive than a photo ID card or social security card. Best of all, it would reduce or eliminate the need for racial profiling: "Anyone who had the [national ID] card could be allowed to pass through airports or building security more expeditiously, and anyone who opted out could be examined much more closely" Such cards would enable airport security officials to do instant background checks on everyone. The only information on the card would be a person's "name, address, photo, and [finger]print" Dershowitz Classical Method The Classical Method of structuring an argument is another common way to organize your points. Originally devised by the Greek philosopher Aristotle and then later developed by Roman thinkers like Cicero and Quintilian , classical arguments tend to focus on issues of definition and the careful application of evidence. Thus, the underlying assumption of classical argumentation is that, when all parties understand the issue perfectly, the correct course of action will be clear. Statement of Background Narratio : Present vital contextual or historical information to the audience to further their understanding of the issue. By doing so, you provide the reader with a working knowledge about the topic independent of your own stance. Proposition Propositio : After you provide the reader with contextual knowledge, you are ready to state your claims which relate to the information you have provided previously. This section outlines your major points for the reader. Proof Confirmatio : You should explain your reasons and evidence to the reader. Be sure to thoroughly justify your reasons. In this section, if necessary, you can provide supplementary evidence and subpoints. Refutation Refuatio : In this section, you address anticipated counterarguments that disagree with your thesis. Conclusion Peroratio : You should summarize your main points. The use of pathos here makes the reader more inclined to consider your argument. Example of the Classical Method: Introduction Exordium : Millions of workers are paid a set hourly wage nationwide. You may even change your ideas — being willing to do this proves that you are open-minded rather than dogmatic. How should they be included in the essay? Presenting counterclaims in the essay is fairly straightforward. Which should be more developed: my knowledge claim, or my counterclaim? Your knowledge claim should be more extensive than your counterclaim, and you should try to make it clear in your essay within the mini-conclusion to that section, and within the main conclusion which is your point of view ie the claim, rather than the counterclaim.

You give your how, your opponent essays theirs, and then, depending on the scenario, counter a third and a fourth point of view is present offered. Once these have been presented, the next step is trying to prove why the claim points of view are inaccurate, and yours is more complete.

And by doing this, you will consider the issue in more details and depth, and formulate a more sophisticated opinion.

Follow each point with an opposing view related to that point and evidence that supports the objection. Use one paragraph for each counter point and its evidence. After you have finished presenting all points, counter points and evidence, start the second section of the body with your rebuttals to each of the counter points. Back your rebuttals with evidence and logic that shows why the objections are invalid. If the opposing view is valid, acknowledge it as so but use your evidence to show that it's somehow unattractive and that your position is the more desirable of the two. Use one paragraph to rebut each counter claim. The conclusion of this format is a restatement of your claim, a summary of supporting information and an assessment of rebuttals. Statement of the claim B. First point and supporting information C. To do otherwise is not only dangerous, it defies common sense. What I liked about this refutation: The writer calmly and clearly outlines the true concerns and reasons why people oppose the opinion. He makes sure the reader knows that he is outlining opposing viewpoints because he gives hints like "Supporters of school choice point out that This is a nice way for readers to be aware of what others think. Also, towards the end of the first paragraph, and throughout the second paragraph, the writer spends time clearly attacking these opposing views. He helps the reader feel like the opposing views might SEEM good on the surface, but they are indeed not good enough. You first imagine a skeptical reader, or cite an actual source, who might resist your argument by pointing out a problem with your demonstration, e. Then you state the case against yourself as briefly but as clearly and forcefully as you can, pointing to evidence where possible. An obviously feeble or perfunctory counterargument does more harm than good. In reasoning about the proposed counterargument, you may refute it, showing why it is mistaken—an apparent but not real problem; acknowledge its validity or plausibility, but suggest why on balance it's relatively less important or less likely than what you propose, and thus doesn't overturn it; concede its force and complicate your idea accordingly—restate your thesis in a more exact, qualified, or nuanced way that takes account of the objection, or start a new section in which you consider your topic in light of it. This will work if the counterargument concerns only an aspect of your argument; if it undermines your whole case, you need a new thesis. Once these have been presented, the next step is trying to prove why the other points of view are inaccurate, and yours is more complete. And by doing this, you will consider the issue in more details and depth, and formulate a more sophisticated opinion. You may even change your ideas — being willing to do this proves that you are open-minded rather than dogmatic. How should they be included in the essay? Presenting counterclaims in the essay is fairly straightforward.

You may even change what is a word to shorten a essay ideas — being willing to do this proves that you are open-minded rather than dogmatic. How should they examples of problem solution essay included in the essay.

Presenting counterclaims in the essay is fairly straightforward. Which should be more developed: my knowledge claim, or my counterclaim.

How to write a counter claim and conclusion by grace gilbertie on Prezi

Your knowledge claim should be more extensive than your counterclaim, and you should try to make it clear in your essay within the mini-conclusion to that section, and within the main conclusion which is your point of view ie the how, rather than the counterclaim. In other words, you should go into present depth for your claim, and support it with a little more evidence.

Their argument is that school choice would allow all parents the freedom, regardless of income level, to select the school that provides the best education Chub and Moe. Schools would then have to compete for students by offering higher academic results and greater safety. Schools unable to measure up to the standards of successful schools would fail and possibly close. These companies represent a growing trend of privatization of public schools by large corporations. It is feared that these corporations could grow to a point that public control of education would be lost. Education policy would be left in the hands of entrepreneurial think tanks, corporate boards of directors, and lobbyists who are more interested in profit than educating students [Miller and Gerson]. To do otherwise is not only dangerous, it defies common sense. What I liked about this refutation: The writer calmly and clearly outlines the true concerns and reasons why people oppose the opinion. Note that these are only three of the most popular models for organizing an argument. Alternatives exist. In other words, you make your main argument. In other words, provide the reader with facts that prove your argument is strong. As a result, the underlying assumption that you build your argument on is grounded in reason. Don't avoid arguments that oppose your own. Instead, become familiar with the opposing perspective. If you respond to counterclaims, you appear unbiased and, therefore, you earn the respect of your readers. You may even want to include several counterclaims to show that you have thoroughly researched the topic. If you present data to your audience without explaining how it supports your thesis, your readers may not make a connection between the two, or they may draw different conclusions. Thus, hybrid cars are a better solution for much of the nation's population. Moreso than other methods, it places an emphasis on reiterating an opponent's argument to his or her satisfaction. The persuasive power of the Rogerian Method lies in its ability to define the terms of the argument in such a way that: your position seems like a reasonable compromise. When you discuss the counterargument without judgement, the opposing side can see how you do not directly dismiss perspectives which conflict with your stance. You identify how and why their perspective makes sense in a specific context, but still present your own argument. In this section, you explain your own stance. Statement of Contexts: Explore scenarios in which your position has merit. When you explain how your argument is most appropriate for certain contexts, the reader can recognize that you acknowledge the multiple ways to view the complex issue. Statement of Your Position: Students should not be required to wear school uniforms. Second counter point and refuting information C. First point and supporting information B. Second point and supporting information C. Third point and supporting information IV Conclusion - Restatement of claim and summary of the main ideas Example 2: The Cluster Format Introduce the topic and state or explain the question. Start the first section of the body with your statement of claim or position. In this format, you begin by stating and supporting your points. Follow each point with an opposing view related to that point and evidence that supports the objection. Use one paragraph for each counter point and its evidence. After you have finished presenting all points, counter points and evidence, start the second section of the body with your rebuttals to each of the counter points. Back your rebuttals with evidence and logic that shows why the objections are invalid. If the opposing view is valid, acknowledge it as so but use your evidence to show that it's somehow unattractive and that your position is the more desirable of the two. Use one paragraph to rebut each counter claim.

As always, read it back to yourself, or get someone else to read it, to make sure that your position is clear on an issue Including different perspectives As well as considering the other side of the argument — the counterclaim — you should also consider how your knowledge claims might be approached from alternative perspectives. For the sort of perspectives you can consider, look at section 8 of claim.

Considering the implications of your knowledge issues All of the knowledge issues you include in your essay should be meaningful and important, and your claim life situations, even if they how taken from your own personal experiences, should be essay. In other words, they should be issues and examples we can all identify with and understand, and perhaps even have experienced for ourselves. This will allow you to stress their implications more effectively.

For more on this, check out section 9 of the how.

Counterclaims, perspectives, and implications 8th May .