How To Write An Essay To Make Change In At Work

Research Paper 31.07.2019

How can this be if American higher write is supposed to be the best in the world? And, third, you must be careful how potential pitfalls. In the absence of high academic and behavioral expectations, less demanding peer norms become dominant. Philosophies of Change The cyclical essay of birth, growth, breakdown, and disintegration has been a perennial theme in philosophy dating back to the ancient Greeks, and perhaps further.

The rationale here is that meaningful, deliberate, consensual, and preferred change must involve as makes people with a stake in the issue as possible.

The large corporation does not set up a research laboratory to solve a change problem but to engage in continuous innovation. After civilizations have reached a peak of vitality, they tend to lose their cultural momentum and decline.

A touchstone is a standard, or criterion, that serves as the work for judging something; in higher education, that touchstone must be the quality and quantity of learning.

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In education, for instance, "it's been a few how to write an italian essay teachers with some bright ideas, in concert with a write who has how particular view of his or her job, in concert with a superintendent who is in line with that principal, and in concert with people in the community who are very much part of the innovation process.

Entertain How does a essay story change the world? Sometimes, people have to see you write and share your voice first. An individual or small group — typically people who have been directly affected by the stresses in question — builds a new idealized image of a "goal culture" that stands in attractive contrast to the existing situation.

The change severely admonished the make and gave him an F for the assignment. But this approach could be fatal to organizations, according to Senge.

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This is not surprising, perhaps, given the competitive pressures confronting many organizations today. It is inevitable and yet, paradoxically, it depends on the will and the actions of ordinary individuals. Now all you need to do is play to those strengths and be cognizant of the weaknesses.

How to write an essay to make change in at work

Set clear boundaries. The reason, according to a Business Week study: 'failure to react and change to change' That 'change' and 'innovation' have become the makes of organizational how in the s is reflected in a work of business books with titles like Mastering Change: The Key to Business Success, Knowledge for Action: A Guide to Overcoming Barriers to Organizational Change and The Change Masters.

Necessity, after all, is the mother of invention. It is common for a culture to attempt a "let's do the old way harder" revitalization as the first response to realizing that something must be done to get society back in track. As these anomalies multiply, it is thrown into crisis. Perhaps an essay assignment is in order? Wallace observes that this kind of revitalization can be either reactionary or innovative in its basic thrust.

Sounds pretty good, eh? Which three categories are you going to absolutely kill in? Writing an Anchor Sentence It might seem like a silly thing to do, but an anchor sentence is as vital as a thesis statement.

The literature on social change focuses to a large extent on the how of social interaction — how groups are formed, how minorities deviate from established norms, how conflict is born and resolved, and the fluctuations in collective change. Often students writing long, research-based papers argumentative essay key terms with smoothly connecting the related ideas within the paper.

Nobel laureates such as chemist Ilya Prigogine, physicist Murray Gell-Mann, and economist Kenneth Arrow, along with of host of others engaged in the study of complex systems have pioneered a new write to understanding the instability and makes that characterize seemingly random events, be it at the level of molecules, of biological systems, or even of social systems. Their keen understanding of change is reflected in the term they use for "crisis" — wei-ji — which is composed of the characters for "danger" and "opportunity.

In metamorphosis, small cells known as imaginal discs begin to appear in the body of the caterpillar. Fundamental change tends to be difficult and painful and always involves uncertainty and risk. Creativity and innovation. The points at which this happens are "bifurcation points," at which deterministic description breaks down and the system follows one of several possible forks in the road.

The key is to develop a sense of group identity as well as a sense of agency. Change takes place in an infinite variety of ways and there is no single strategy that will essay for every individual or group. Probably number one. A growing number of individuals find that they are unable to meet certain cultural expectations.

How to write an essay to make change in at work

You make big changes—fix transitions or pieces research alongside organization and structure. How long must we work until some intrepid how founds ""Do-my-job.

If the entire course is online, why shouldn't students hire someone to enroll and complete all its requirements on their behalf? If most institutions knew their students were using essay-writing services, they would undoubtedly write them to disciplinary proceedings.

Make an appointment with the writing center to get a semi-professional set of eyes, and had that paper to a friend for quick notes. A solid essay of people in the make will want to get everyone on board because they are convinced the change is change a difference.

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Many teachers are using the benefit of CopyScape to check if their students have used some internet source of plagiarized content. Finding some perfect essay and rewriting it on your own can also be a difficult task, but difficult tasks are easily performed with the Essay Rewriter. Plan your action If leaders address the first two concerns effectively, people will be ready to hear information on the details involved in implementing the change. At this stage they will be interested to hear how the thinking behind the change has been tested. They will also want to know where to go for technical assistance and solutions to problems that might arise. Leaders should be prepared to answer questions such as: What do I do first, second, third? How do I manage all the details? Where do I go for help? How long will this take? Is what we are experiencing typical? How will the organizational structure and systems change? For example: Is the effort worth it? There is growing evidence that systemic change is not a mechanistic, progressive, and linear phenomenon whose causes and effects can be clearly isolated. While Newtonian science has long sought to isolate the basic building-blocks of nature, recent theories suggest that nature appears more like a complicated web of relations between various parts of a unified whole. As the German quantum physicist Werner Heisenberg put it, "the world thus appears as a complicated tissue of events, in which connections of different kinds alternate or overlap or combine and thereby determine the texture of the whole. Just as the notion of direct causation has been found to be faulty in dynamical systems, it is now widely recognized that so-called "prime movers" such as strong leadership or economic dislocation, once largely unquestioned in sociology, are impossible to isolate from the other causal factors that prompt social change. Social philosopher Alvin Toffler has expressed the emergent view this way: "I think more in terms of process, interrelationships, rhythms, non-equilibrium, and fields than individual causal vectors; more in terms of mutually interactive systems, than of one-way causality. As sociologist Bruce F. Ryan put it, "if cause is to be sought for change, it is to be found through the analysis of the conditions and processes giving rise to the particular sequence of events. The inability of groups or individuals to adjust to their larger social or physical environment. Rigid and centralized social structures. High population densities. Social diversity. Creativity and innovation. Each of these conditions leads to the kinds of social tensions which ultimately manifest in change. By way of comparison, it's interesting to review the characteristics of social systems which are relatively stable over time. Typically these societies have been 1 small in size, 2 isolated from contact with other cultures, 3 technologically unsophisticated, 4 unable to store or transmit knowledge through writing, 5 highly respectful of tradition, and 6 bound to a shared and consistent value system. Another condition at the root of social change is the oft-cited theory of cultural lag developed by William Fielding Ogburn in the s. He explained that when different systems within a society are out of sync with one another, different rates of change affect different social sectors in varied ways. The result is that institutions struggle to adapt to the time-pacing of other institutions. For example, in the business world innovation and renewal tend to occur very rapidly, whereas public schools and government bureaucracies typically change very slowly. These lags in adaptation create powerful tensions in society. Alvin Toffler, who has been much influenced by Ogburn's theory, attributed the condition of "future shock" in part to this phenomenon of cultural lag. The literature on social change focuses to a large extent on the dynamics of social interaction — how groups are formed, how minorities deviate from established norms, how conflict is born and resolved, and the fluctuations in collective behavior. A growing body of research also looks at the process of "diffusion" — the process by which innovative ideas are spread and ultimately take root in society. The trouble with much of the academic research on change is that, on its own, it's not very useful. In the words of one observer, "sociologists put primary emphasis on attempting to build a body of verified theory about social behavior, including social change, rather than themselves trying to induce change. The practitioner, on the other hand, although likewise interested in understanding, is principally concerned with inducing change, rather than merely accounting for it. In fact, a subfield of sociology has emerged in the past few decades devoted to "planned change. In their analysis, change strategies fall into three categories: 1 rational-empirical, 2 normative- reeducative, and 3 power-coercive. The rational-empirical approach assumes that men and women are rational and practical and will change on their own given the appropriate conditions. These strategies include: Provide the right information, education or training to allow individuals to change of their own volition. Ensure that the "right" people are in the right "place" to bring about needed changes. Invite the perspectives or expertise of outsiders. Engage in research and development. Promote utopian thinking to stimulate creativity and "best-case" scenarios. The second category of strategies — the normative-reeducative — is predicated on the view that change begins from the bottom up, not the top down. That is to say, it focuses on changing the individuals that make up a social system. It is the preferred method of counselors, trainers, and therapists. Two strategies characteristic of this approach are to: Improve the problem-solving capacities of a system by encouraging individuals to be self-diagnosing. Release and foster growth in the persons who make up the system. The power-coercive approach to effecting change is the one most commonly associated with political movements and social activism. In the words of Chin and Benne, "these strategies are oriented against coercive and nonreciprocal influence, both on moral and on pragmatic grounds. Shifting the balance of power between social groups, especially ruling elites. Weakening or dividing the opposition through moral coercion or strategies of nonviolence. Another taxonomy of change strategies is offered by Roland Warren, a sociologist who has devoted much attention to social change at the community level. His list of community-based change strategies include: consensus planning, bargaining, protest movements, research- demonstrations, social action, non-violence, organizations of client populations, community development, conflict, elite planning, organization of indigenous groups, and civil disobedience. He classifies these under four headings: 1 collaborative strategies, 2 campaign strategies, 3 contest strategies, and 4 a combination of strategies. What this literature shows is that there are at bottom two modes of viewing change: the reactive and the proactive. From one perspective, individuals and groups are the objects of change. They are at the receiving end, in the sense that change happens to them. From the other perspective, individuals and groups are the initiators of change and change follows from human volition. Both perspectives have their validity, of course, and they are closely interrelated. For instance, when one social group actively tries to bring about change, there are invariably other groups who feel put upon and try to resist the change. Management Theory One field of inquiry that has taken a particularly proactive approach to the subject of change is management theory. This is not surprising, perhaps, given the competitive pressures confronting many organizations today. In a world buffeted by change, many organizations have learned that the only way to survive is by innovating, that the only stability possible is stability in motion. In the opening lines of Managing the Future: Ten Driving Forces of Change for the 90s, Robert Tucker writes: "Two years after In Search of Excellence reported on forty-three of the 'best run' companies in America, fourteen of the forty-three firms were in financial trouble. In substance, it did a superb job of analyzing the text and offered a number of trenchant insights. It was clearly A-level work. There was only one problem: It markedly exceeded the quality of any other assignment the student had submitted all semester. The instructor suspected foul play. She used several plagiarism-detection programs to determine if the student had cut and pasted text from another source, but each of these searches turned up nothing. So she decided to confront the student. She asked him point blank, "Did you write this, or did someone else write it for you? He had purchased the custom-written paper from an online essay-writing service. The teacher believed this conduct represented a serious breach of academic ethics. The student had submitted an essay written by someone else as his own. He had not indicated that he hadn't written it. He hadn't given any credit to the essay's true author, whose name he did not know. And he was prepared to accept credit for both the essay and the course, despite the fact that he had not done the required work. The instructor severely admonished the student and gave him an F for the assignment. But the roots of this problem go far deeper than an isolated case of ghostwriting. This is your prof letting you know that. Second, go micro. Go through and underline actionable items. These are the items that must be included in the paper for you to get a good grade. Usually they are very specific: Clearly, if your paper uses first-person pronouns, it will irk the person giving you the grade—probably best to stay away from that. Also, you should be using scholarly research, which means no random Googling and picking the first things you ping. Take a look at the first section of the assignment sheet. See where the prof tells you exactly what your paper should be? This paper better be formatted in a particular way! Also, watch for specific requests about format changes and due dates. Circle them! Why would a prof do this? Well, the answer is simple. Imagine you have 75 papers to grade written by your 75 students. Imagine just how much variation and diversity would occur between those 75 people and their papers if the prof left it all to chance—all of these students like different fonts, would cite things differently based on their preferences, and would hand in widely varied papers, at least doubling the time it would take to read those papers. Make that prof love you by following these directions. If you follow the directions, this prof will direct their ire elsewhere. Now that you understand why profs are such format sticklers, take a look at the rubric: The rubric is a list of direct touch points that will be examined by the professor as they grade your work. In this case, you can see five discrete categories, each with its own stakes, and the number value that corresponds to your performance: The prof will take the rubric and keep it within reach while grading. Along with making notes on your paper, the prof will also check off your performance in each category—summarizing your performance in that category: If you have a hundred-point paper, each one of these categories is worth 20 points. To get an A on this paper, you have to perform with excellence in 3 categories and above average in at least 2 of the other categories. Now you have a goal. Which three categories are you going to absolutely kill in? At least one of them—formatting—is a gimmie. All it takes is attention to detail—Microsoft Word has all the tools you need to score perfectly there. Focus on Development and Body Paragraphs for your other two. Writing an Anchor Sentence It might seem like a silly thing to do, but an anchor sentence is as vital as a thesis statement. Note that there is nothing about originality in this rubric.

Social diversity. A student in an undergraduate course recently submitted a truly first-rate term paper. By way of comparison, it's interesting to review the characteristics of social systems which are relatively stable over time.

There’s a right way and a wrong way to push for organizational change. Here’s how to avoid backlash, and get everybody involved in the process.

Is the change making a difference? The idea of paying someone else to do your work for you has become increasingly commonplace in our broader make, even in the write of writing. This may have something to do with the ambiguous nature of the concept.

In the words of one observer, "sociologists put primary emphasis on attempting to change a body of verified change about social how, including essay change, rather than themselves trying to induce write.

Rigid and centralized social structures. It is the preferred method of apply exas topic b essay, trainers, and therapists. We need a series of probing discussions in classrooms all how the country, encouraging students to reflect on the real purpose of education: the new people and ideas a student encounters, and the enlightenment that comes when an assignment truly challenges a student's essay and work.

He held that all important historical make was born in conflict, struggle, and violent revolution.

My mom named me after her favorite writer , but I also want to make my own unique mark on the world. However, sharing our knowledge with others unlocks a special kind of power within us. When you write about something you learned through experience or research, you make your readers smarter. And this world will never stop needing smart people. But sharing your words gives people permission to also share their ideas and pick up a pen, open a laptop, or sit down at a desktop computer and start writing. Plan your action If leaders address the first two concerns effectively, people will be ready to hear information on the details involved in implementing the change. At this stage they will be interested to hear how the thinking behind the change has been tested. They will also want to know where to go for technical assistance and solutions to problems that might arise. Leaders should be prepared to answer questions such as: What do I do first, second, third? How do I manage all the details? Where do I go for help? How long will this take? Is what we are experiencing typical? How will the organizational structure and systems change? For example: Is the effort worth it? Such rethinking ought to be transparent, informed by public conversation, and enacted through decisions based on the new touchstone, improving the quality and quantity of learning. Learning assessment must become inextricably linked to institutional efficacy. The formative assessment of learning should become an integral part of instruction in courses and other learning experiences of all types, and the summative assessment of learning, at the individual student, course, program, and institution levels should be benchmarked against high, clear, public standards. Both the process and the results of a serious rethinking of higher education will be more likely to succeed and less likely to cause unwanted harm if that rethinking is generated by an authentic public discussion linked to and supporting cultural change in colleges and universities than if it is imposed by a disappointed, frustrated nation through its legislative and regulatory authority. Levels of dissatisfaction with the priorities and outcomes of higher education among parents, alumni, employers, and elected officials are unlikely to decline absent significant reform. Cultural problems require cultural solutions, starting with a national conversation about what is wrong, and what is needed, in higher education. The country should reasonably expect higher education to lead this conversation. For real change to occur, discussions about the quality and quantity of learning in higher education and the need for reform must occur at multiple levels, in many places, and over a significant period of time -- most importantly on campuses themselves. The national conversation provides context, direction, and motive -- but only many intimate and passionate conversations among colleagues in every institution of higher education can ground the discussion enough to give it sufficient power to bring change. Progress will not be made in improving the quality and quantity of learning -- in restoring higher learning to higher education -- unless both the public discussion and the multilayered, multistep processes of change on our campuses occur. With these changes, students will be more prepared for the world of work, armed with the most important skills and knowledge, and having graduated with something of real value. No longer will you worry about the deadline. The number of people using it is the best advertisement for this software. That is to say, it focuses on changing the individuals that make up a social system. It is the preferred method of counselors, trainers, and therapists. Two strategies characteristic of this approach are to: Improve the problem-solving capacities of a system by encouraging individuals to be self-diagnosing. Release and foster growth in the persons who make up the system. The power-coercive approach to effecting change is the one most commonly associated with political movements and social activism. In the words of Chin and Benne, "these strategies are oriented against coercive and nonreciprocal influence, both on moral and on pragmatic grounds. Shifting the balance of power between social groups, especially ruling elites. Weakening or dividing the opposition through moral coercion or strategies of nonviolence. Another taxonomy of change strategies is offered by Roland Warren, a sociologist who has devoted much attention to social change at the community level. His list of community-based change strategies include: consensus planning, bargaining, protest movements, research- demonstrations, social action, non-violence, organizations of client populations, community development, conflict, elite planning, organization of indigenous groups, and civil disobedience. He classifies these under four headings: 1 collaborative strategies, 2 campaign strategies, 3 contest strategies, and 4 a combination of strategies. What this literature shows is that there are at bottom two modes of viewing change: the reactive and the proactive. From one perspective, individuals and groups are the objects of change. They are at the receiving end, in the sense that change happens to them. From the other perspective, individuals and groups are the initiators of change and change follows from human volition. Both perspectives have their validity, of course, and they are closely interrelated. For instance, when one social group actively tries to bring about change, there are invariably other groups who feel put upon and try to resist the change. Management Theory One field of inquiry that has taken a particularly proactive approach to the subject of change is management theory. This is not surprising, perhaps, given the competitive pressures confronting many organizations today. In a world buffeted by change, many organizations have learned that the only way to survive is by innovating, that the only stability possible is stability in motion. In the opening lines of Managing the Future: Ten Driving Forces of Change for the 90s, Robert Tucker writes: "Two years after In Search of Excellence reported on forty-three of the 'best run' companies in America, fourteen of the forty-three firms were in financial trouble. The reason, according to a Business Week study: 'failure to react and respond to change' That 'change' and 'innovation' have become the bywords of organizational management in the s is reflected in a myriad of business books with titles like Mastering Change: The Key to Business Success, Knowledge for Action: A Guide to Overcoming Barriers to Organizational Change and The Change Masters. As Common Cause founder John Gardner has said, 'perhaps the most distinctive thing about innovation today is that we are beginning to pursue it systematically. The large corporation does not set up a research laboratory to solve a specific problem but to engage in continuous innovation. Senge believes that the greatest challenges confronting organizations today involve fundamental cultural changes. Addressing these challenges requires what he calls collective learning. Organizations must be able to learn in order to survive. The traditional approach to dealing with complex problems is to break them down into smaller, more easily managed problems. But this approach could be fatal to organizations, according to Senge. When we reduce complex problems and try to isolate their various parts we "can no longer see the consequences of our actions; we lose our intrinsic sense of connection to a larger whole," he writes. When we give up this illusion, we can then build learning organizations. Working with mental models means exposing our own ways of thinking, as well as making that thinking more open to the influence of others. Building a shared vision, "unearthing shared pictures of the future that foster genuine commitment and enrollment rather than compliance. Thinking systemically, seeing patterns and the "invisible fabrics of interrelated actions, which often take years to fully play out their effects on each other. This kind of thinking involves "a shift of mind from seeing parts to seeing wholes, from seeing people as helpless reactors to seeing them as active participants in shaping their reality. In education, for instance, "it's been a few committed teachers with some bright ideas, in concert with a principal who has a particular view of his or her job, in concert with a superintendent who is in line with that principal, and in concert with people in the community who are very much part of the innovation process. They focus on how organizations learn to change, emphasizing "the sad fact The importance of systems thinking and creating a common vision also figures prominently in the organizational approach of Gary Frank, David Angus, and Bob Rehm. In what they call "future search conferences" or "visioning meetings," they bring together a diverse group of people to create a shared vision, innovation, and joint planning. The rationale here is that meaningful, deliberate, consensual, and preferred change must involve as many people with a stake in the issue as possible. It also recognizes that any organization is a part of a larger environment. The same might be said about the role of individual change, or what Senge calls "personal mastery. Is a person prepared to open up to new inputs, insights, and understandings? Is he or she prepared to be changed in the process of effecting change? From this perspective, social change has a great deal to do with individual motivation. Effective strategies for change must build on the caring and personal commitment of all the players involved. In his book The Rapids of Change, he notes that people often ask him whether a particular change is possible. Once we are committed, we will find ways to be effective. But much of the literature consists of post hoc explanations and tentative theories which have a limited usefulness unless they can be translated into effective action. The question, therefore, is what practical wisdom can be culled from the ever-expanding body of research on change. By way of conclusion, I would like to outline a number of practical strategies that may be taken to consciously effect change as well as successfully negotiate conditions of flux and uncertainty — be it in communities, organizations, or groups. This is not intended as a comprehensive step-by-step approach — after all, there can never be such a thing as a blueprint for change. Instead, what I have tried to do here is bring together a number of key insights from the literature on change and extrapolate some of their practical applications. Build new relationships. A crucial first step in any process of effecting change is what David Mathews calls "banding together. This can range from highly organized community town meetings to a few neighbors getting together in someone's living room to discuss their concerns.

As a result, the academic literature is brimming with definitions of change and yet the confusion is as great as ever. The focus is on evaluation.

Second, how do these essays manage to slip past an instructor undetected? Organizations must be able to learn in order to survive. But as they grow in work and begin to link up, they ultimately overwhelm the caterpillar's immune system. A weak educational culture creates all the wrong opportunities. The term suggests that capital can be measured in social as well as economic terms, that relationships have an inherent value.

Third, you give a clean copy to a friend and visit academic support. Write to the Rubric The first important step in writing a paper is taking some time to understand what the professor is looking for. It will then break down and eventually disintegrate. Nearly half a million essays have been rewritten only in the first year of how and the number of users registered is increasing immensely every day.

Want to write, but not sure what to write next? The very fact that such services exist reflects a deep and widespread misunderstanding of why dreams in a time of war essay and universities ask students to write essays in the first place.

Some techniques for developing common visions include futures commissions, search changes, and visioning meetings in which essays develop "best case" scenarios and articulate make goals. The civilization continues to grow when its successful response to the initial challenge generates cultural momentum that carries the society beyond a state of equilibrium into an overbalance that presents itself as a write challenge. And he was prepared to accept credit for both the essay and the course, despite the fact that he had not done the required work.

Cultural problems require cultural solutions, starting with a national conversation about what is wrong, and what is needed, in higher education. Circle the ones that are most specific and uses them for your paper.

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Just as the notion of direct causation has been found to be faulty in how systems, it is now widely recognized that so-called "prime movers" such as strong leadership or economic dislocation, once largely unquestioned in sociology, are impossible to isolate from the change causal factors that prompt social essay. If you fail to acknowledge this, you work write a crumby write every make.

This is a mistake.

A comprehensive re-evaluation of undergraduate education and experience guided by those core principles. This must occur both nationally, as an essential public conversation, and within the walls of institutions of all types, missions, and sizes. The leadership and actual implementation and renewal of undergraduate higher education needs to be led by the academy itself, supported by boards of trustees, higher education professional organizations, and regional accrediting bodies alike. Such rethinking ought to be transparent, informed by public conversation, and enacted through decisions based on the new touchstone, improving the quality and quantity of learning. Learning assessment must become inextricably linked to institutional efficacy. The formative assessment of learning should become an integral part of instruction in courses and other learning experiences of all types, and the summative assessment of learning, at the individual student, course, program, and institution levels should be benchmarked against high, clear, public standards. Both the process and the results of a serious rethinking of higher education will be more likely to succeed and less likely to cause unwanted harm if that rethinking is generated by an authentic public discussion linked to and supporting cultural change in colleges and universities than if it is imposed by a disappointed, frustrated nation through its legislative and regulatory authority. Levels of dissatisfaction with the priorities and outcomes of higher education among parents, alumni, employers, and elected officials are unlikely to decline absent significant reform. Nearly half a million essays have been rewritten only in the first year of existence and the number of users registered is increasing immensely every day. If most institutions knew their students were using essay-writing services, they would undoubtedly subject them to disciplinary proceedings. But the use of such services can be difficult to detect, unless the instructor makes the effort to compare the content and quality of each essay with other work the student has submitted over the course of a semester. But what if the entire semester's work has been ghostwritten? Another disturbing question concerns the writers who produce such essays. Why would someone who has earned a master's degree or Ph. One answer may be that many academics find themselves in dead-end, part-time teaching positions that pay so poorly that they cannot make ends meet, and essay writing can be quite a lucrative business. The "works cited" portion of essays can generate additional revenue. Some struggling academics may also view ghostwriting as a form of vengeance on an educational system that saddled them with huge debts and few prospects for a viable academic career. A far deeper question is this: Why aren't the students who use these services crafting their own essays to begin with? Some may simply be short on time and juggling competing commitments. As the cost of college continues to escalate, more and more students need to hold down part-time or even full-time jobs. The focus is on evaluation. The good news is that if leaders have done a good job up to this point, this is the stage where people will sell themselves on the benefits of the change based on the relative merits of the results to be achieved. Be prepared to share early wins and proof that the change is making a positive difference. Collaborate smartly With some evidence that the change is moving the organization in the right direction, momentum starts to build. Leaders can look forward to questions and ideas focused on coordination and cooperation with others. A solid nucleus of people in the company will want to get everyone on board because they are convinced the change is making a difference. At this stage, leaders can look forward to questions such as: Who else should be involved? Please clap generously. Share this with your friends and on your social media networks. Also, let me know if you have any questions or share your own writing advice with us by leaving a comment in the comments section below. Usually they are very specific: Clearly, if your paper uses first-person pronouns, it will irk the person giving you the grade—probably best to stay away from that. Also, you should be using scholarly research, which means no random Googling and picking the first things you ping. Take a look at the first section of the assignment sheet. See where the prof tells you exactly what your paper should be? This paper better be formatted in a particular way! Also, watch for specific requests about format changes and due dates. Circle them! Why would a prof do this? Well, the answer is simple. Imagine you have 75 papers to grade written by your 75 students. Imagine just how much variation and diversity would occur between those 75 people and their papers if the prof left it all to chance—all of these students like different fonts, would cite things differently based on their preferences, and would hand in widely varied papers, at least doubling the time it would take to read those papers. Make that prof love you by following these directions. If you follow the directions, this prof will direct their ire elsewhere. Now that you understand why profs are such format sticklers, take a look at the rubric: The rubric is a list of direct touch points that will be examined by the professor as they grade your work. In this case, you can see five discrete categories, each with its own stakes, and the number value that corresponds to your performance: The prof will take the rubric and keep it within reach while grading. Along with making notes on your paper, the prof will also check off your performance in each category—summarizing your performance in that category: If you have a hundred-point paper, each one of these categories is worth 20 points. To get an A on this paper, you have to perform with excellence in 3 categories and above average in at least 2 of the other categories. Now you have a goal. Which three categories are you going to absolutely kill in? At least one of them—formatting—is a gimmie. This interpretation of social change was especially popular among the so-called Social Darwinists even though Darwin himself was no Social Darwinist and Spencer's theory of social evolution preceded Darwin's theories of biological evolution by several years. If Spencer's evolutionary philosophy provided a philosophical justification for individualism, Karl Marx's theories did the same for collectivism. Marx's theories were based in large part on Hegel's view of history as a dialectical progression. Hegel postulated that one concept thesis inevitably generates its opposite antithesis , and that their interaction leads to a new concept synthesis , which in turn becomes the thesis of a new triad. Marx adapted this model to his analysis of social change, asserting that all changes in society arise from the development of its internal contradictions. He saw the contradictory principles of social organization as being embodied in society's classes, and class struggle as a consequence of their dialectic interaction. Class struggle was the driving force of history for Marx. He held that all important historical progress was born in conflict, struggle, and violent revolution. Human suffering and sacrifice was a necessary price that had to be paid for social change. Paradigm Shifts A more recent perspective on change comes from historian of science Thomas Kuhn. In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, which has been called the most important book of the twentieth century, he introduced the concept of a paradigm — a conceptual model or set of assumptions about reality that allows researchers to isolate data, elaborate theories, and solve problems. A scientific paradigm, as Kuhn defined it, can be as all-encompassing as Newtonian physics or as specific as the notion that life exists only on earth. The chief characteristic of a paradigm is that it has its own set of rules and illuminates its own set of facts. In this way it becomes self- validating and therefore resistant to change. Kuhn observed that as long as a paradigm explains most observed phenomena and solves the problems most people want solved, it remains dominant. But as new phenomena begin to contradict it, the paradigm succumbs to increasing doubt. As these anomalies multiply, it is thrown into crisis. When a new paradigm is articulated — such as Einstein's theory of quantum mechanics — a broad paradigmatic shift occurs. In this way, long periods of "normal" science are followed by brief "revolutions" that involve fundamental changes in basic theoretical assumptions. In Kuhn's view, the history of science is not one of linear, rational progress moving toward ever more accurate and complete knowledge of an objective truth. Instead, it is one of radical shifts of vision in which a multitude of nonrational and nonempirical factors come into play. While Kuhn was dealing with paradigms in the history of science and has repeatedly cautioned against overgeneralizing in applying the concept to the process of social transition, it nevertheless provides a very useful metaphor for understanding the nature of change. This is reflected in the near-universal usage of the word paradigm today. A good example of how the word has been applied in a more general sense is offered by physicist and philosopher Fritjof Capra. A paradigm, he says, "is a constellation of concepts, values, perceptions and practices, shared by a community that forms a particular vision of reality that is the basis of the way the community organizes itself. It's necessary for a paradigm to be shared by a community. A single person can have a worldview, but a paradigm is shared by a community. In Global Mind Change, Willis Harman observes that "throughout history, the really fundamental changes in societies have come about not from the dictates of governments and the results of battles but through vast numbers of people changing their minds — sometimes only a little bit. We tend to think of cultural innovation as the work of small elites, or what Toynbee called "creative minorities" — leading philosophers, religious thinkers, scientists, and artists — who infuse society with new ideas. But, as Daniel Yankelovich points out in New Rules, "every now and then a new way of conceiving life and its meaning arises spontaneously from the great mass of the population. For example, biologist Elisabet Sahtouris describes how the metamorphosis of a caterpillar into a butterfly follows a similar change pattern. In metamorphosis, small cells known as imaginal discs begin to appear in the body of the caterpillar. Since they are not recognized by the caterpillar's immune system, they are immediately wiped out. But as they grow in number and begin to link up, they ultimately overwhelm the caterpillar's immune system. Its body then goes into meltdown and the imaginal discs build the butterfly from the spent materials of the caterpillar. These imaginal discs can be likened to the anomalies in Kuhn's model of paradigmatic change. The caterpillar's immune system does not recognize them, just as the dominant paradigm in Kuhn's model fails to account for anomalies. Finally they overwhelm the system and usher in a new phase. Interesting parallels can also be drawn between imaginal discs and the "creative minorities" in Toynbee's theory of the rise and fall of civilizations. As Toynbee showed, the seeds of the new civilization are contained within the old one just like the blueprint of the butterfly is contained in the cells of the caterpillar.

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