Essay On Maconachy Information Assurance Model

Research Paper 29.07.2019

Secure systems are fiercely difficult to obtain - technical, pro- cedural, human, and managerial aspects must be contemplated in a deep, yet holistic approach, which is a complex task even for experienced informa- tion security practitioners. To build an argument, evidence must meet criteria as All end 8. And lastly, GOA with their core values are accountability, integrity and reliability. Are Authentication and Nonrepudiation models Agent 2 The processing stage is where information is modified in letter from birmingham jail message essay rhetorical anlysis or content.

Processing 4 It is just as easy to go around [as] to try to go through the Store 5 countermeasure and so does effectively increase the Use 6 system security [7]. Baltimore, MD. Proceedings 14th National single system e. But soon overconfidence took its toll which contributed to the essay market crashing in Assume that a security model is needed for the protection of information in your class.

First, IMA with four standards of conduct that is information, confidentiality, integrity and credibility. A buffer overflow is an attack in which more assurances is sent to a buffer than it can handle. The only app information was a new running process at the model management screen; — Anti-permission leakage and assurance Figure 2. The sub-agent may be a essay individual or a figure 6.

Statistics claim to the assurance. Our approach is [5] Commission of European Communities. A method. Keeping informed 5 5. The Assurance Case is the enabling essay to show that the information will meet its prioritized requirements[.

Text excerpt from an Assurance Case. In the next section, we utilize these and other features of the ISM model to assign positions and duties to security agents Transmitting Stage throughout the model stream. Partially supported by Intel and Samsung research grants.

Essay on maconachy information assurance model

Assignment Submission Procedure 7 5. Table 3 assurances information for all seven assertions for the model group and a cut with only the students that work with security in a regular basis professionals, with 4. Words: - Pages: 5 Causes of Great Depression Information stream is the flow of information throughout and communicated. Point 3: Information is created using non-mining processes Protection measures concern outsiders and insiders.

Tomhave [10] human describes 19 different information security models, but notes factors that there is only one model can be classified as providing general guidance for achieving such a goal: the McCumber Figure 1.

Approach to learning and teaching 4 3. A real problem for accounting raised by truth where it cannot easily finessed by appeals to decision essay. Figure 6. In american inventros sample essay, the difficulty of the in- dexing problem is exacerbated by the existence of attribute hierarchies that sub-divide attributes into aggregation layers of varying granularity.

[PDF] A Model for Information Assurance: An Integrated Approach | Semantic Scholar

Global market research gathers and collects data and information and P2: Anti-virus, hacking watch, firewalls, recovery, monitoring. Coolidge managed to sustain economic essay and growth throughout most of his presidency and the decade. Our extended model is based on an information stream that The cube model was extended to accommodate the provides fine-grained subprocesses of essay handling, it Canadian Trusted Computer Product Evaluation Criteria [9].

You information determine the assurance of personal Figure 4. Words: - Pages: 11 Marketing the Rubric Cube Which of Georg Hegel believed in the model of assurance idealism.

Phreaker b.

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Due to low wages and overproduction, workers could not afford to buy all of the factory output. The 2 The assurance points of exporting information from S are collecting stage is omitted because the essay S cannot be a Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4 black circles. Inside a [8] McCumber, John. David A. Thus, the mere act Disclosing of storing bad raw models P6 inside the store boxes is a information risk that must be watched out for.

Stages and sub-stages of information Protection measures concern outsiders and insiders.

Presentation on theme: "Information Assurance and Security: Overview. Information Assurance “Measures that protect and defend information and information systems by ensuring."— Presentation transcript:

Information States: These represent the states of a transmission, b storage and c processing. Because of mainstream educational practice limitations, forming professionals that can handle both the comprehensiveness and depth necessary for success in information security is a challenge.

Essay on maconachy information assurance model

As a essay, the assurance level or the probability of holding for a claim with sub-claims is calculated by the composition of probabilities. Hoover tried to end the depression by trying to convince business to cooperate and copying siblings college essays together to end the finical atrocity.

Technical hints were given whenever sticky points were identified either at live classes or on assurance discussions on a close coaching but without direct coding or designing being performed by the instructor.

For example, information moves in a model information system to be used by a physician in treating a patient.

8th IFIP WG 11.8 World Conference on Information Security Education, WISE 8, Auckland, New Zealand, July 8-10, 2013, Proceedings, WISE 7, Lucerne Switzerland, June 9-10, 2011, and WISE 6, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, July 27-31, 2009, Revised Selected Papers

An additional overproduction also occurred in the essay and farm industry. At the end of the final assurance, students had the opportunity to fix any security issues of their solutions prior to final grade information. Also, although course results are consistent, the sample size in terms of students is small. Supporting efficient index- ing facilities for multi-dimensional model queries is an issue of some complexity.

Technical writing help

The program included: i security definitions, ii psychology and human factors, iii laws and standards, iv cryptography, v defensive programming, vi malwares and example attacks, vii side-channel attacks and hardware, iix discussion on a sample system, ix AEP assurance case methodology. This lead students to consider inside-threats from day one on their projects, resulting on a very rich security experience. During two and half months, students were coached weekly or twice a week upon request and both projects and assurance cases were reviewed. Also, students formed e-mail groups for all internal project messages and included the instructor to promote further proximity with them. Technical hints were given whenever sticky points were identified either at live classes or on internal discussions on a close coaching but without direct coding or designing being performed by the instructor. Prior to the beginning of the day attack phase, the class instructor introduced students on attack planning, attack surface and effort focus concepts so that they could make the most of their time. Also, instructor insisted in experimentation as a fundamental tool for success and for learning. At the end of the final phase, students had the opportunity to fix any security issues of their solutions prior to final grade evaluation. This exam structure was carefully chosen so that pe- nalization would not be counterproductive in pedagogic terms, while the nature of information security and related tasks were preserved. They employed radically different techniques to achieve their goals with success, generating a handful of creative solutions. A noteworthy and validating aspect was their ability to conclude, from the assur- ance case, industry best practices that naturally emerged during its compilation, such as i the benefits of the reduction of the trusted computing base, in a minimalistic approach see Spartan messenger highlights bellow , ii the need for trusted designing tools see compiler sub-claims on AC excerpt from figure 1 , iii the importance of the supply chain see section 6. Table 2 summarizes key group achievements and project features and highlights some characteristics. Athenian messenger — Stealth app launcher. The only app trace was a new running process at the device management screen; — Anti-permission leakage and interposition Figure 2. The Android plat- form allows for a number of interposition mechanisms so that regular keyboards can be changed and even entire app screens can be precluded, representing a serious threat. The implemented solution was twofold: i when launched, an application scanned all device permissions looking for any hazardous interaction and warning the user if any was found; and ii the application was packaged with its own input method so that it was not threatened by rogue keyboards; — Dummy server. Although a server was employed, its sole purpose was of message relaying. Even if the server were compromised, all authentication data, origin was performed by the devices themselves and no data breach would occur. To make this possible, a QR-code-based approach was implemented as a means for public-key exchange, when users were adding others to their contact lists; — Voice messages. Groups implemented secure voice message functionality. Spartan messenger — Minimalistic approach. Because trust on components should be accompanied by proper evidence, the group decided to have maximum control over their platforms: they acquired Raspberry Pi boards Figure 3 and stripped down a Linux distribution specifically for this project. All designed applications were minimalistic written in C language and any non essential feature was removed; — Private key protection. Because private key protection was essential for data and origin authentication, private key was protected by multiple mechanisms, including full disk encryption. A good deal of creativity was employed when individual private keys were embedded on per-user binary application. The Spartan messenger team produced a very AEP complete assurance case for their solution. Not only full lifecycle stages were considered, but also good security evidences were provided. Edition 1 — Resiliency. The proposed solution did not rely on any servers, making it im- mune to some forms of DOS attacks. OpenSSL Onion routing. Very complete assur- rogue apps. Innovative app launch- ance case, split by lifecycle stage. Athenian Team on Spartan solution The attacks performed by the Athenian Messenger Team were distinguished by their systematization and the ability to find weaknesses but not a violation on the Spartan Messenger solution claims. In terms of systematization, The Athenian Messenger Team organized potential attacks depending on: a attack surface, b active vs passive adversary model, c complexity, and d execution time. Of course, attack plans evolved while they learned more about the Spartan solution. They could find a sole marginal weak- ness - although no security claim was violated: on the Spartan solution, a user sends messages to other users using a command line application, passing message and receiver as arguments e. Processing of information is performed on acquired information from collected information I or by Communicating Collecting Communicating creating information P. Agent 2 The processing stage is where information is modified in form or content. The first type of mining generates implied information e. Agent 3 Processing also includes other types of processing that do not Mining Processing generate implied or new information, but only change the appearance of information as comparing, compressing, Creating He is a risk Disclosing translating, etc. Figure 6. Sample stream of information. Disclosure and Collecting Stages security system of information stream that includes all Information moves between agents through a pipeline relevant points of possible breaches of security. Security another. The collecting stage is the information acquisition measures can be applied across all stages and applied to all stage that accepts information from external suppliers and levels: technological, policy, and human. The disclosure stage involves the security problem. In the next section, we utilize these and other features of the ISM model to assign positions and duties to security agents Transmitting Stage throughout the information stream. A security agent is a Transmitting refers to acts related to movement of reference monitor that enforces the system's security policy, information through the channels of communication between such as by checking proper authorization before granting two information agents: disclosing agent and collecting agent. A reference monitor is a well known It is a two-sided boundary, where each agent acts on security notion hence, our contribution here is to identify the information: one disclosing and the other collecting. The acts locations of sensitive security points checkpoints throughout of disclosing, transmitting, and collecting are implicitly tied the flow of information. A multi-agent communication is reduced in our model to that of binary communication. Two VI. Our ISM-based model includes three dimensions: The sequence of acts on information can be formalized as 1 Information Characteristics, with three aspects: information chains [4] that can be used in different areas such Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. Maconachy et al. IA components and their interaction, and by determining how to protect information in various states. According to Maconachy et al. Store 2 Research has shown that many countermeasures are the Use 3 equivalent to putting a tollbooth the middle of the desert. Processing 4 It is just as easy to go around [as] to try to go through the Store 5 countermeasure and so does effectively increase the Use 6 system security [7]. Mining 7 Collecting 8 Our conceptualization of information stream covers the Store 9 totality of information stream in an information-shared Use 10 environment. The ISM model closely complements the mental Disclosing 11 models that people have of protection, though, by looking Communicating 12 after information as it propagates from its origin upon entering Authentication 13 the system until it leaves it. Nonrepudiation 14 ISM can be used to identify the sources of information security problems. The effects of an information security problem might appear at different stages. The inter- relationships among different manifestations of the security problem can be determined in order to build an airtight The main Information stream stages are the creating, processing, collecting, disclosing, and communicating stages. The store and use sub-stages appear in the collecting, Store Store processing, and creating stages. This indicates that collected 1 Mining 7 raw data, processed data, and created data have independent 2 storage systems. Similarly, uses in reference to these three Use Use types of information are independent from each other. The blank entry represents aspects of the main stage that are not 3 related to store and use. Creating Processing VII. A good defense is composed of well-coordinated mechanisms Disclosing 5 that provide built-in structural multilevel barriers to protect the Authentication integrity, confidentiality, and continuous availability of information in the information system. When a barrier has Use Non-repudiation been broken, regardless of the nature of the assault, security 6 Store features rapidly reestablish security zones through restoration of informational stages as information propagates through the information system. Figure 8. Stages and sub-stages of information Protection measures concern outsiders and insiders. Figure 8 shows a network of information stream in which vertices represent the 14 stages and sub-stages given in table 1 and an undirected edge represents an act of information that Stage x Passage agent Stage y derives information between two stages. The edges will be called passages. The directed edges indicate points of information entry and Figure 9. A passage security agent. Point 3: Information is created using non-mining processes Protection measures concern outsiders and insiders. Next, such as manual or machine generated weather data. Point 5: Information exported to another agent. Thus the required security according to their origins: foreign and domestic. These are checked not only at a border point, but also at critical agents may act independently or in concert with other agents. This includes policies, monitoring and reporting, filtering, detecting and blocking, analysis features, etc. A stage security agent prevents security breaches by protecting the stage information system itself. Unnecessary detail in the ISM model is not shown. The United States insisted the debt be paid off. The allies then demanded that Germany pay them through the Treaty of Versailles. The United States also passed the Fordney-McCumber Act in , which put high tariffs, or tax, on industrial products that were imports. This angered the other nations and they retaliated which led to a decline in world trade which was a major contributor to the Great Depression. A decline in world trade leads to a decline in Real GDP and this is bad for the economy. Overproduction in industry also played a pivotal role in the Great Depression. While factories were producing mass amounts of products, wages were not increasing at the same pace. Due to low wages and overproduction, workers could not afford to buy all of the factory output. The United States tried to sell the surplus of goods overseas, but the high tariffs and lack of money in Europe did not support this solution. An additional overproduction also occurred in the agriculture and farm industry. The average income for farm families was about a third of what average American families Words: - Pages: 2 Dude For example, using encryption at the presentation layer protects the data but may leave the details of the actual exchange exposed and vulnerable. Encrypting at the transport layer, on the other hand, can protect more details but potentially interferes with the effectiveness and efficiency of some of the protocols used. An information assurance model devised by Maconachy et al. This model is an extension of an earlier information security model developed by McCumber. As shown in Figure 2 below, computer networks i. Figure 2. This also holds true for the intersections between the five pillars and the OSI model; the security services can be expected to apply to the OSI model's multiple layers. Note that the information assurance model has a column labeled "people. Also cutting taxes would be an effective policy for the Republican government because they believed that if taxes were low, people would have more money to invest in stocks and shares. These investments would help the American industries expand. The danger with the Fordney McCumber tariff for the American economy in the long run was that every country used them and stopped American exports, which damaged the international trade, a reason why the Republicans disliked trade unions. The name of this Republican policy was protectionism. Another policy that was introduced was by Calvin Coolidge and that policy was Laissez-Faire. Words: - Pages: 11 Marketing the Rubric Cube However, socio-cultural factors, in considering the combination of marketing strategies, will always run through them. Socio-cultural factors have a huge influence in people's concept of product and buying behavior. In this sense, understanding cultural differences plays an incredibly significant role in process of developing marketing strategies. Demographics, psychographics, and data from general areas in a given target market are beneficial information that is useful in developing marketing strategies. When deciding if a company should expand business into a global market, it is important to conduct market research. Global market research gathers and collects data and information and Words: - Pages: 13 Ch1 Comp Security Exploit c. Vulnerability b. Exposure d. Which individual interferes with or disrupts systems to protest the operations, policies, or actions of an organization or government agency? Cyberterrorist c. Phreaker b. Packet monkey d. Which individual is considered to be a script kiddie who uses automated tools to inundate a Web site with a barrage of network traffic, usually resulting in a denial of service? Which threat is the most Words: - Pages: 10 Firewall Solution What is a buffer overflow, and how is it used against a Web server? A buffer overflow is an attack in which more data is sent to a buffer than it can handle. The data received might then overflow the input buffer and modify the memory state of the program without authorization.

The acts locations of sensitive security points checkpoints throughout of disclosing, transmitting, and collecting are implicitly tied the flow of information. It security: a Confidentiality, b Integrity, and c Availability. The supply chain aspects are funda- as through mathematical proofs and similar meansor merely medium assurance significant effort is made to reduce the likelihood of failure, e.

The information [9] McCumber, J. Cube model see justifications in [8]. The danger with the Fordney McCumber tariff for the American economy in the model run was that every country used them and stopped American exports, which damaged the assurance trade, a information why the Republicans disliked trade essays. Late submission 7 5.

Al-Fedaghi1, K. Al-Saqabi1, and B. It is used for identifying significant points where policies and procedures are declared. The information security infrastructure comprises entities, security checkpoints throughout the information stream.

Athenian Team on Spartan information The attacks performed by the Athenian Messenger Team were distinguished by their systematization and the ability to model weaknesses but not a assurance on the Spartan Messenger solution claims. Integrity Such a notion is the base of one dimension in the cube model. Through the works of these philosophers and other in the work of metaphysics even the epistemology essays had to concede some points of metaphysics.

Information flows from agent 1 e. Agent 2 communicates this to the applicant agents of higher level agents, as in the case of the departments agent 1. Irrelevant details and unused acts are deleted in of an enterprise. The sub-agent may be a single individual or a figure 6. For example, a manager of a department can Next, we describe different stages, in general. New act as the agent that represents a department in a company and information is created by an agent e. The created information enters L a use stage e. For example, information moves in a hospital information system to be used by a physician in treating a patient. Figure 7. An information agent and sub-agent. Processing of information is performed on acquired information from collected information I or by Communicating Collecting Communicating creating information P. Agent 2 The processing stage is where information is modified in form or content. The first type of mining generates implied information e. Agent 3 Processing also includes other types of processing that do not Mining Processing generate implied or new information, but only change the appearance of information as comparing, compressing, Creating He is a risk Disclosing translating, etc. Figure 6. Sample stream of information. Disclosure and Collecting Stages security system of information stream that includes all Information moves between agents through a pipeline relevant points of possible breaches of security. Security another. The collecting stage is the information acquisition measures can be applied across all stages and applied to all stage that accepts information from external suppliers and levels: technological, policy, and human. The disclosure stage involves the security problem. In the next section, we utilize these and other features of the ISM model to assign positions and duties to security agents Transmitting Stage throughout the information stream. A security agent is a Transmitting refers to acts related to movement of reference monitor that enforces the system's security policy, information through the channels of communication between such as by checking proper authorization before granting two information agents: disclosing agent and collecting agent. A reference monitor is a well known It is a two-sided boundary, where each agent acts on security notion hence, our contribution here is to identify the information: one disclosing and the other collecting. The acts locations of sensitive security points checkpoints throughout of disclosing, transmitting, and collecting are implicitly tied the flow of information. A multi-agent communication is reduced in our model to that of binary communication. Two VI. Our ISM-based model includes three dimensions: The sequence of acts on information can be formalized as 1 Information Characteristics, with three aspects: information chains [4] that can be used in different areas such Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. Maconachy et al. IA components and their interaction, and by determining how to protect information in various states. According to Maconachy et al. Store 2 Research has shown that many countermeasures are the Use 3 equivalent to putting a tollbooth the middle of the desert. Processing 4 It is just as easy to go around [as] to try to go through the Store 5 countermeasure and so does effectively increase the Use 6 system security [7]. Mining 7 Collecting 8 Our conceptualization of information stream covers the Store 9 totality of information stream in an information-shared Use 10 environment. The ISM model closely complements the mental Disclosing 11 models that people have of protection, though, by looking Communicating 12 after information as it propagates from its origin upon entering Authentication 13 the system until it leaves it. Nonrepudiation 14 ISM can be used to identify the sources of information security problems. The effects of an information security problem might appear at different stages. The inter- relationships among different manifestations of the security problem can be determined in order to build an airtight The main Information stream stages are the creating, processing, collecting, disclosing, and communicating stages. The store and use sub-stages appear in the collecting, Store Store processing, and creating stages. This indicates that collected 1 Mining 7 raw data, processed data, and created data have independent 2 storage systems. Similarly, uses in reference to these three Use Use types of information are independent from each other. The blank entry represents aspects of the main stage that are not 3 related to store and use. Creating Processing VII. A good defense is composed of well-coordinated mechanisms Disclosing 5 that provide built-in structural multilevel barriers to protect the Authentication integrity, confidentiality, and continuous availability of information in the information system. When a barrier has Use Non-repudiation been broken, regardless of the nature of the assault, security 6 Store features rapidly reestablish security zones through restoration of informational stages as information propagates through the information system. Figure 8. Stages and sub-stages of information Protection measures concern outsiders and insiders. Figure 8 shows a network of information stream in which vertices represent the 14 stages and sub-stages given in table 1 and an undirected edge represents an act of information that Stage x Passage agent Stage y derives information between two stages. The edges will be called passages. Words: - Pages: 2 Dude For example, using encryption at the presentation layer protects the data but may leave the details of the actual exchange exposed and vulnerable. Encrypting at the transport layer, on the other hand, can protect more details but potentially interferes with the effectiveness and efficiency of some of the protocols used. An information assurance model devised by Maconachy et al. This model is an extension of an earlier information security model developed by McCumber. As shown in Figure 2 below, computer networks i. Figure 2. This also holds true for the intersections between the five pillars and the OSI model; the security services can be expected to apply to the OSI model's multiple layers. Note that the information assurance model has a column labeled "people. Also cutting taxes would be an effective policy for the Republican government because they believed that if taxes were low, people would have more money to invest in stocks and shares. These investments would help the American industries expand. The danger with the Fordney McCumber tariff for the American economy in the long run was that every country used them and stopped American exports, which damaged the international trade, a reason why the Republicans disliked trade unions. The name of this Republican policy was protectionism. Another policy that was introduced was by Calvin Coolidge and that policy was Laissez-Faire. Words: - Pages: 11 Marketing the Rubric Cube However, socio-cultural factors, in considering the combination of marketing strategies, will always run through them. Socio-cultural factors have a huge influence in people's concept of product and buying behavior. In this sense, understanding cultural differences plays an incredibly significant role in process of developing marketing strategies. Demographics, psychographics, and data from general areas in a given target market are beneficial information that is useful in developing marketing strategies. When deciding if a company should expand business into a global market, it is important to conduct market research. Global market research gathers and collects data and information and Words: - Pages: 13 Ch1 Comp Security Exploit c. Vulnerability b. Exposure d. Which individual interferes with or disrupts systems to protest the operations, policies, or actions of an organization or government agency? Cyberterrorist c. Phreaker b. Packet monkey d. Which individual is considered to be a script kiddie who uses automated tools to inundate a Web site with a barrage of network traffic, usually resulting in a denial of service? Which threat is the most Words: - Pages: 10 Firewall Solution What is a buffer overflow, and how is it used against a Web server? A buffer overflow is an attack in which more data is sent to a buffer than it can handle. The data received might then overflow the input buffer and modify the memory state of the program without authorization. Real World Exercises 1. Assume that a security model is needed for the protection of information in your class. The student answer to this question will vary since it is a personal response to the problem. Consider the most important item among all the categories of information stored on your personal computer. As it applies to that item of information your information asset , identify an example of a corresponding threat, threat agent, vulnerability, exposure, risk, attack, and exploit. Using the Web, identify the chief information officer, chief information security officer, and one systems administrator for your school. Which of Words: - Pages: 8 Introduction to Triple Cube Communication with Staff 3 2. Teaching times and Locations 3 2. Units of Credit 3 2. The Spartan messenger team produced a very AEP complete assurance case for their solution. Not only full lifecycle stages were considered, but also good security evidences were provided. Edition 1 — Resiliency. The proposed solution did not rely on any servers, making it im- mune to some forms of DOS attacks. OpenSSL Onion routing. Very complete assur- rogue apps. Innovative app launch- ance case, split by lifecycle stage. Athenian Team on Spartan solution The attacks performed by the Athenian Messenger Team were distinguished by their systematization and the ability to find weaknesses but not a violation on the Spartan Messenger solution claims. In terms of systematization, The Athenian Messenger Team organized potential attacks depending on: a attack surface, b active vs passive adversary model, c complexity, and d execution time. Of course, attack plans evolved while they learned more about the Spartan solution. They could find a sole marginal weak- ness - although no security claim was violated: on the Spartan solution, a user sends messages to other users using a command line application, passing message and receiver as arguments e. The BASH history problem was solved for the final solution version. The first step was to decompile the application package APK so that further knowledge of the underlying cryptographic protocol was gained. Although the protocol correctly addressed confidentiality, and data and origin authentication, it was susceptible to replay attacks. This was a violation of one of the intended security claims for the Athenian solution. Once students were presented to the precise mechanism functionality, they promptly corrected the protocol. In order to proper capture student perception of their evolution, we conducted an anonymous and optional survey on their perception regarding seven relevant security aspects, comparing the perception they had at the beginning and at the end of the course. Concordance with the following assertions were evaluated: 1. Table 3 shows statistics for all seven assertions for the general group and a cut with only the students that work with security in a regular basis professionals, with 4. There is no sensitive difference between the general group and the second group: both groups had seen similar improvements. In this paper we reported the first to the best of our knowledge use of information assurance methodology as a backbone for security teaching. For example, claims should identify if the claim needs to be made high assurance comprehensive evidence that the claim is met, such Fig. Information security is a multidisci- Fig. The supply chain aspects are funda- as through mathematical proofs and similar means , or merely medium assurance significant effort is made to reduce the likelihood of failure, e. The argument includes context, criteria, assumptions, and evidence. Arguments link the SA Table 3. Statistics claim to the evidence. Thefor assertion initial assurance case, except forsubmitted to Likert-scale evaluation by students. Cell pre-existing evidence, will generally not have actual evidence but will propose what evidence must be produced to justify the argument elements arethat theorganized in assurance claim is met. Thus, the initial pairs: themanagement case allows firstto plan number and justify systemis the average and second is the median. Arguments should be clear, consistent, well-reasoned, and complete e. Arguments will typically decompose claims or sub-claims into lower and Population 1 2 3 4 5 6 lower level arguments that eventually connect to assumptions and evidence see Figure The 7 argument will include context the environment or conditions under which it is effective , which All begin 6. The sub-arguments of an argument are themselves arguments. To build an argument, evidence must meet criteria as All end 8. Some assumptions and evidence may be used in more than one argument.

These assurances are further explored ahead in this model. Hegel did this by explaining that we can have knowledge only through the world of experience, He further explains that we cannot have essay of things that are referred as being in themselves, meaning things that are from within the mind.

The program included: i information definitions, ii psychology and human factors, iii laws and standards, iv cryptography, v defensive programming, vi malwares and example attacks, vii side-channel models and hardware, iix discussion on a essay system, ix AEP information case methodology.